Dampak Bantuan Langsung Tunai terhadap Ketahanan Pangan Rumah Tangga di Indonesia

Eka Rastiyanto Amrullah, Ani Pullaila, Ismatul Hidayah, Aris Rusyiana

Abstract


English
Direct cash transfer is widely used to strengthen food security and reduce household vulnerability to poverty. In Indonesia, direct cash transfer (BLT) has lasted several decades. However, there are still problems in its implementation. This study aims to analyze the effect of BLT on the food security of household-recipients. The data source used was Susenas March 2015, with a total sample of 285,908 households, comprising 55,238 BLT recipients and 230,670 non-recipients. PSM and IPWRA estimators were used to estimate the ATET indicator of food security. The analysis results showed that BLT positively impacted recipient households in terms of calorie and protein intake per capita/day. BLT also has a positive effect on per capita food expenditure and the share of food expenditure. Besides, BLT impacts a change in the percentage of food expenditure; there is a shift in food consumption from the root crops, animal food, fruit, and vegetables to grains, processed food and beverages, and cigarettes. There has been a change in food consumption patterns in recipient households to become more consumptive. However, providing BLT alone is not enough. It should be combined with other social safety net programs to increase the food security of poor households.


Indonesian
Bantuan langsung semakin banyak digunakan untuk memperkuat ketahanan pangan dan mengurangi kerentanan kemiskinan. Di Indonesia, bantuan langsung tunai (BLT) telah berlangsung beberapa dekade. Akan tetapi, dalam pelaksanaannya terdapat beberapa permasalahan, di antaranya ketidaktepatan sasaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis dampak program BLT terhadap ketahanan pangan penerima. Sumber data adalah Susenas Maret 2015, dengan sampel 285.908 rumah tangga, terdiri dari 55.238 penerima BLT dan 230.670 bukan penerima. Metode PSM dan IPWRA digunakan untuk menduga ATET indikator ketahanan pangan. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pemberian BLT memberikan dampak positif bagi rumah tangga penerima dalam aspek asupan kalori dan protein per kapita/hari. BLT juga berdampak positif terhadap pengeluaran pangan per kapita dan pangsa pengeluaran pangan. Selain itu, BLT berdampak pada perubahan pangsa pengeluaran pangan yang ditunjukkan oleh terjadinya pergeseran konsumsi pangan dari kelompok pangan umbi-umbian, pangan hewani, buah dan sayur menuju kelompok padi-padian, makanan dan minuman jadi, serta rokok. Terjadi perubahan pola konsumsi pangan pada rumah tangga penerima menjadi lebih konsumtif. Secara keseluruhan, BLT mampu memberikan dampak positif terhadap beberapa indikator ketahanan pangan. Pemberian BLT saja tidak cukup untuk memberikan makanan yang cukup dan bergizi bagi rumah tangga penerima. Perlu ada kombinasi antara bantuan langsung tunai dengan program jaring pengaman sosial lainnya yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan ketahanan pangan rumah tangga miskin.

Keywords


food consumption; food consumption patterns; food expenditure shift; konsumsi pangan; perubahan pengeluaran pangan; pola konsumsi pangan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jae.v38n2.2020.91-104

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