Keragaman Somaklonal untuk Perbaikan Tanaman Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) melalui Kultur In Vitro

Endang G Lestari, Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih, Muhammad Syukur, Rosa Yunita


Somaclonal Variability for the Improvement of Plants
Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) by In Vitro Culture.
Endang G. Lestari, Rosa Yunita, and Ali Husni. Artemisia
annua L., a family member of Asteraceae, is medicinal
plants originated from China. The plant has been widely
used by the local people for malaria remedy. Its active substance,
artemisine, has been proved to hamper the malaria
bacteria incubation, Plasmodium sp. In accordance with the
WHO recomendation, the Department of Health of Indonesia
is now in the attempt of developing this plant as the
subtitute of chloroquin because of the malaria bacteria
resistance to this antidote. In Indonesia, the artemisine
content of the plant less than 0,5% is the crucial problem
leading no investors are interested in its economic value.
Therefore, Indonesian Medicinal and Spice Crops Research
Institute; BPTO Tawangmangu, Indonesian Institute of
Sciences; and PT Kimia Farma cooperate for obtaining the
prime clone by breeding, selection, as well as environmental
adaptation. In coping with the problem, ICABIOGRAD in the
collaboration with Bogor Agricultural University have
conducted the research for genetic improvement through
mutative induction and field selection. This research on
somaclonal variation. was conducted from Januari 2006 to
Juni 2008. Eksplan used for experiment were shoots radiated
with 10-100 Gy gamma ray. The result showed that the shoot
radiated with the dosage of 70-100 Gy was unable to grow.
On the other hand, the high level of multiplication was
acquired in the one radiated with 10-30 Gy. The optimum
radiation for somaclonal radiation was eventually gained
with 40-60 Gy. The somaclone lines with 10-60 Gy radiation
have been aclimatized and planted in Gunung Putri plot in
the elevation of 1545 asl. Artemisinin content at the high
biomases genotype is 0,49-0,52%.


Artemisia annua L.; artemisinine; somaclone; varieties; gamma ray

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