Impacts of Upsus Program on the Cost Efficiency and Competitiveness of Rice Production in Indonesia

Adi Setiyanto, Isabelita M. Pabuayon

Abstract


Program Upsus adalah program nasional yang dirintis pada tahun 2014 dan mulai diterapkan secara besar-besaran pada tahun 2015. Dalam program ini, padi mendapatkan porsi terbesar dari anggaran pemerintah, dan diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produksi beras melalui peningkatan luas areal panen dan produktivitas. Target yang ditetapkan adalah bahwa Indonesia akan mencapai swasembada beras lagi dalam tiga tahun. Setelah itu, targetnya adalah Indonesia dapat memelihara keberlanjutan swasembada beras, mencapai surplus untuk ekspor setelah 2017, dan dalam jangka panjang Indonesia akan menjadi lumbung pangan dunia pada tahun 2045. Saat ini, program tersebut telah dilaksanakan selama lima tahun dan analisis dampak dari penerapan program Upsus terhadap sisi efisiensi biaya dan daya saing produksi beras Indonesia ini penting untuk dikaji. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk membahas kerangka teoritis dan konseptual pengaruh program Upsus terhadap peningkatan efisiensi biaya dan daya saing produksi padi pada tingkat usaha tani. Alat analisis yang dapat digunakan untuk ini adalah perbandingan antara sebelum dan sesudah implementasi program Upsus yang terdiri dari regresi fungsi stochastic frontier cost (SFC), policy analysis matrix (PAM), analisis distribusi kepadatan kernel, dan model regresi berganda pengaruh peningkatan efisiensi biaya terhadap perubahan daya saing. Beberapa rekomendasi kebijakan yang dihasilkan dari pembahasan makalah ini berguna untuk lebih membantu meningkatkan strategi implementasi selanjutnya dari program Upsus pada padi.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v38n1.2020.29-52

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