Karakteristik Komersial dan Perubahan Sosial Petani Kecil

Herlina Tarigan

Abstract


This article analyzes peasant’s commercial characteristics in irrigated lowland agro ecosystems and identifies its social change. Peasant’s performance includes limited land holding, poor infrastructure condition, family food security orientation, low access to capital, information and technology and institutional involvement, production cost dependence on traders, and strong social and employment institutional ties. Various policies needed for more commercial peasants include guarantee of land and market rights, farm management, risk mitigation and adaptation, promoting an efficient and inclusive food product value chain, develop modern agricultural farming and management techniques, establishing synergistic farmer’s economic institutions and extension institutions, and expanding business network. Policy strategies include flexible transfer of land tenure, instruments to reduce and manage farm risks, open access to market and marketing information, create favor value chains, vertical and horizontal coordination to meet the safety standards, peasant’s organization role enhancement, provide incentives for high-value commodity production, reduce trade barriers and technology subsidies that potentially reduce farmer’s employment and opportunities, and develop innovative financial service access systems. Priority policy includes better technology and natural resource management practices, input subsidies for food production, protection of land rights and farming system development to support non-farm diversification.

 

Abstrak

Artikel ini menganalisis karakteristik komersial petani pada agroekosistem sawah dan mengidentifikasi perubahan sosialnya. Selain pemilikan lahan terbatas, petani kecil juga bekerja dalam kondisi infrastruktur yang buruk, orientasi keamanan pangan keluarga, akses rendah terhadap modal, informasi, teknologi, dan kelembagaan, ketergantungan biaya produksi pada pedagang, serta ikatan sosial dan kelembagaan ketenagakerjaan yang kuat. Berbagai kebijakan yang diperlukan untuk petani agar lebih komersial diantaranya jaminan hak atas tanah dan pasar, strategi manajemen pertanian, mitigasi dan adaptasi risiko, mempromosikan rantai nilai produk makanan yang efisien dan inklusif lebih dekat ke sektor hulu, mengembangkan teknik pertanian dan manajemen pertanian modern, membangun institusi ekonomi dan lembaga penyuluhan petani yang sinergis, dan memperluas jaringan bisnis. Strategi untuk mengubah petani kecil agar komersial antara lain transfer lahan yang fleksibel, instrumen untuk mengurangi dan mengelola risiko usaha tani, membuka akses terhadap pasar dan informasi pasar, menciptakan rantai nilai baik, koordinasi vertikal dan horizontal untuk memenuhi standar keamanan, meningkatkan peran organisasi petani, insentif untuk produksi komoditas bernilai tinggi, mengurangi hambatan perdagangan dan subsidi teknologi yang berpotensi mengurangi pekerjaan dan peluang petani, serta mengembangkan sistem akses layanan keuangan yang inovatif. Skala prioritas meliputi teknologi yang lebih baik dan praktik manajemen sumber daya alam, input subsidi untuk produksi pangan, perlindungan hak atas tanah dan pengembangan sistem pertanian untuk mendukung diversifikasi non-pertanian.


Keywords


commercial characteristics; peasant; social change; karakteristik komersial; perubahan sosial; petani kecil

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/fae.v36n2.2018.129-142

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