Antioxidant Activity of Stem Bark Ethanolic Extracts of Calophyllum pulcherrimum, C. soulattri, and C. teysmannii

Eris Septiana, Partomuan Simanjuntak


The decreased air quality due to severe pollution causes the formation of free radicals in the body. Antioxidants counteract free radicals compounds and are beneficial to health. Calophyllum plants is one of the natural antioxidants source. The study was aimed to determine the best antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of stem bark both single and combinations of three species of Calophyllum. The study was conducted from September to December 2017 at the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Research Center for Biotechnology LIPI, Cibinong, West Java. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, repeated three times.  The treatments consisted of ethanolic stem bark extracts of a) C. pulcherrimum b) C. soulattri (CS), c) C. teysmannii (CT), d) combination of C. pulcherrimum and C. soulattri (CP+CS), e) combination of C. pulcherrimum and C. teysmannii (CP+CT), f) combination of C. soulattri and C. teysmannii (CS+CT), and g) combination of C. pulcherrimum, C. soulattri and C. teysmannii (CP+CS+CT) with the ratio of mixed extract was 1 : 1 for treatments with two combinations and 1 : 1 : 1 for three combinations. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging  methods.  The  total  phenolic   and   flavonoids   content   assays   were conducted base on the reaction of follin-ciocalteu and aluminum chloride reagents respectively.  The results showed that combination of Calophyllum stem bark ethanolic extracts revealed higher antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoid content compared to its sole extract. CP+CS+CT treatment has the lowest IC50 value at 3.12 mg.l-1 so that it has the potential as a source of natural antioxidants.


Calophyllum; antioxidant; total phenol; total flavonoid

Full Text:



Alali, F.Q., Tawaha, K., El-Elimat, T., Syouf, M., El-Fayad, M., Abulaila, K., Nielsen, S.J., Wheaton, W.D., Falkinham, J.O. & Oberlies, N.H. (2007) Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Jordanian Plants: an ICBG Project. Natural Product Research. 21(12), 1121-1131. doi: 10.1080/14786410701590285.

Babu, D., Gurumurthy, P., Borra, S.K. & Cherian, K.M. (2013) Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Triphala Determined by Using Different In Vitro Models. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research.7(39), 2898-2905. doi: 10.5897/JMPR2013.5124.

Blanco-Ayala, T., Lugo-Huitron, R., Serrano-Lopez, E.M., Reyes-Chilpa, R., Rangel-Lopez, E., Pineda, B., Medina-Compos, O.N., Sanchez-Chapui, L., Pinzon, E., Cristina, T.S., Silva-Adaya, D., Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Rios, C., Cruz, V.P.D. & Torres-Ramos, M. (2013) Antioxidant Properties of Xanthones from Calophyllum brasiliense: Prevention of Oxidative Damage Induced by FeSO4. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 13(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-262.

Dutta, S. & Ray, S. (2014) Evaluation of Antioxidant Potentials of Leaf Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum in Relation to Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 5(3), 441-450.

Fatmawati, T. (2013) Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Penetapan Kadar Flavonoid Total dari Ekstrak Daun Slatri (Calophyllum soulattri). Skripsi. Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Purwokerto.

Faujan, N.H., Rahim, Z.A., Rehan, M.M. & Ahmad, F.B.H. (2013) Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Content and Antioxidative Activities of Eight Malaysian Traditional Vegetables. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 19(3), 611-624.

Fitriana, W.D., Ersam, T., Shimizu, K. & Fatmawati, S. (2016) Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera Extracts. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry.16(3), 297-301. doi: 10.22146/ijc.21145

Gan, J., Feng, Y., He, Z., Li, X. & Zhang, H. (2017) Correlations between Antioxidant Activity and Alkaloids and Phenols of Maca (Lepidium meyenii). Journal of Food Quality. 2017, 1-10. doi: 10.1155/2017/3185945.

Gunawan, A.A. (2013) Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Identifikasi Golongan Senyawa pada Fraksi dan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Batang Bintangur Batu Calophyllum pulcherrimum Wall. Skripsi. Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta.

Gruyal, G.A. & Rosario, R.R. (2013) Phytochemical Profiles and Quantifications of Flavonoid Contents of Selected Herbs in Cantilan, Surigao del Sur Philipines. SDSSU Multidisiplinary Research Journal. 1(2), 126-133.

Hajimehdipoor, H., Shahrestani, R. & Shekarchi, M. (2014) Investigation the Synergistic Antioxidant Effects of Some Flavonoid and Phenolic Compounds. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1(3), 35-40.

Hangun-Balkir, Y. & McKenney, M.L. (2012) Determination of Antioxidant Activities of Berries and Resveratrol. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 5(2), 147-153.

Ionita, P. (2005) Is DPPH Stable Free Radical a Good Scavenger for Oxygen Active Species?. Chemical Papers. 59(1), 11-16.

Kasparaviciene, G., Ramanauskiene, K., Savickas, A., Velziene, S., Kalveniene, Z., Kazlauskiene, D., Ragazinskiene, O. & Ivanauskas, K. (2013) Evaluation of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Rosmarinus officinalis L. Ethanolic Extracts. BIOLOGIA. 59(1), 39-44.

Katrin, Elya, B., Mahamufrudho, A. & Rissyelly. (2014) Radical Scavenging Activity of Extract, Fraction and Chemical Compound from Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesq. Stembark by Using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Pycril Hydrazil (DPPH). International Journal of PharmTech Research. 6(1), 396-402.

Kaur, J. & Singh, S. (2015) Effect of Sprouting on In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Some Varieties of Chickpea Seeds (Cicer arietinum Linn.). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 8(6), 265-268.

Kaur, S. & Sharma, K. (2014) Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content and Anti-Oxidative Activity of Vegetables. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 3(3), 192-199.

Khani, M., Motamedi, P., Dehkhoda, M.R., Nikhukheslat, S.D. & Karimi, P. (2017) Effect of Thyme Extract Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Capacity, PGC-1α Content and Endurance Exercise Performance in Rats. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 14(1), 1-8. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0167-x.

Kurniawan, A. (2011) Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Potensi Hayati dari Kombinasi Ekstrak Empat Jenis Tanaman Obat Indonesia. Skripsi. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.

Minami, H., Kinoshita, M., Fukuyama, Y., Kodama, M., Yoshizawa, T., Sugiura, M., Nakagawa, K. & Tago, H. (1994) Antioxidant Xanthones from Garcinia subelliptica. Phytochemistry. 36(2), 501-506. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97103-6.

Olajire, A.A. & Azeez, L. (2011) Total Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Flavonoid and Ascorbic Acid Contents of Nigerian Vegetables. African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2(2), 22-29.

Pekal, A. & Pyrzynska, K. (2014) Evaluation of Aluminium Complexation Reaction for Flavonoid Content Assay. Food Analytical Methods. 7(9), 1776-1782. doi: 10.1007/s12161-014-9814-x.

Pranowo, D., Noor, E., Haditjaroko, L. & Maddu, A. (2016) Optimasi Ekstraksi Flavonoid Total Daun Gedi (Abelmoschus manihot L.) dan Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan. Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. 27(1), 37-46. doi: 10.21082/bullittro.v27n1.2016.37-46.

Rachman, F., Logawa, E.D., Hegartika, H. & Simanjuntak, P. (2008) Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Tunggal dan Kombinasinya dari Tanaman Curcuma spp. Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian. 6(2), 69-74.

Rico, M., Sanchez, I., Trujillo, C. & Perez, N. (2013) Screening of the antioxidant properties of crude extracts of six selected plant species from the Canary Island (Spain). Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality. 86(1), 217-220. doi:10.5073/JABFQ.2013.086.030.

Taher, M., Attoumani, N., Susanti, D., Ichwan, S.J.A. & Ahmad, F. (2010) Antioxidant Activity of Leaves of Calophyllum rubiginosum. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 7(10), 1305-1309. doi:10.3844/ajassp.2010.1305.1309.

Taher, M., Idris, M.S. & Arbain, D. (2007) Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia eugenifolia and Calophyllum enervosum. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 6(1), 93-98.

Teixeira, T.S., Vale, R.C., Almeida, R.R., Ferreira, T.P. & Guimaraes, L.G.L. (2017) Antioxidant Potential and Its Correlation with the Contents of Phenolic Compounds and Flavonoids of Methanolic Extracts from Different Medicinal Plants. Revista Virtual de Quimica. 9(4), 1546-1559.

Tiwari, V., Shanker, R., Srivastava, J. & Vanker, P.S. (2006) Change in Antioxidant Activity of Spices- Turmeric and Ginger on Heat Treatment. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 5(2), 1313-1317.

Sangat, H.M., Zuhud, E.A.M. & Damayanti, E.K. (2000) Kamus Penyakit dan Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia (Etnofitomedika). Jakarta, Pustaka Populer Obor.

Sitorus, M.S., Anggraini, D.R. & Hidayat. (2017) Decreasing Free Radicals Level on High Risk Person After Vitamin C and E Supplement Treatment. In. Abdullah, A.G., Nandiyanto, A.B.D. & Danuwijaya, A.A. (eds.) Proceedings of the Annual Applied Science and Engineering Conference. 180(1), IOP Science pp.1-9. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012093.

Zengin, H. & Baysal, A.H. (2014) Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Terpenes against Pathogenic and Spoilage-Forming Bacteria and Cell Structure-Activity Relationships Evaluated by SEM Microscopy. Molecules. 19(11), 17773-17798. doi: 10.3390/molecules191117773.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (BUL LITTRO) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI)
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor, Indonesia 16111
Telp. (0251) 8321879, Fax. (0251) 8327010
E mail :
Website :