Characteristics of Production and Quality of East Kalimantan Black Pepper

Otih Rostiana, Dyah Manohara, Agus Ruhnayat, NFN Wiratno


East Kalimantan is one of production center for white blackpepper, known as Samarinda White Pepper products. The variety developed in East Kalimantan is a local blackpepper variety that is not yet known for its characteristics. The research was conducted to observe the production and quality of local blackpepper in East Kalimantan, specifically in Kutai Kartanegara Regency which is the widest blackpepper development area in East Kalimantan. The observation was conducted for two years, at three locations of high yielding block (BPT) in Loa Janan and one non-BPT location in Muara Badak, as a local origin of local East Kalimantan blackpepper which is currently developing in Loa Janan. The environmental design used was a Randomized Block Design, with four trial sites, repeated six times in each location, using the same variety (local blackpepper). The average production for two years of observation reached 2.94 kg fresh berries/tree equivalent to 2.17 tons of white pepper/ha/year. However, the average of spikes containing pepper berries reached only 61.3% per panicle. Therefore, it requires intensive fertilization with appropriate dosage and fertilizer type to increase the expression of its potential genetic because local pepper of East Kalimantan bears fruit continuously throughout the year. Result of yield-quality analysis showed that local white pepper of East Kalimantan contained 11.23% oleoresin and 3.82% piperin, higher than Petaling 1 (10.66% and 3.03%, respectively). The superiority characteristics of local blackpepper of East Kalimantan is a distinctive aroma and spicy flavor, due to the high content of piperin and oleoresin.


Piper nigrum L.; yield; piperine; oleoresin

Full Text:



Anderson, J.T., Willis, J.H. & Mitchell-Olds, T. (2011) Evolutionary Genetics of Plant Adaptation. Trends in Genetics. 27 (7), 258-266. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2011.04.001.

Ann, Y.C. (2012) Impact of Different Fertilization Methods on the Soil, Yield and Growth Performance of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.). Malaysian Journal of Soil Science. 16 (1), 71-87.

Bermawie, N., Wahyuni, S., Heryanto, R., Setiyono, R.T. & Udarno, L. (2013) Observasi Hasil dan Mutu Lada Lokal di Dua Agroekologi. Bul. Littro. 24 (2), 63-72.

Chao-yun, H.A.O., Rui, F.A.N., Ribeiro, M.C., Le-he, T.A.N., Hua-song, W.U. & Jian-feng, Y. (2012) Modeling the Potential Geographic Distribution of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) in Asia Using GIS Tools. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 11 (4), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 593-599. doi:10.1016/S2095-3119(12)60046-X.

Dinesh, R., Srinivasan, V., Hamza, S., Parthasarathy, V.A. & Aipe, K.C. (2010) Geoderma Physico-Chemical, Biochemical and Microbial Properties of the Rhizospheric Soils of Tree Species Used as Supports for Black Pepper Cultivation in the Humid Tropics. Geoderma. 158 (3-4), 252-258. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.04.034.

Ditjenbun (2017) Kumpulan Deskripsi Varietas Benih Unggul Tanaman Perkebunan. Jakarta, Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian. 507 hlm.

Finlay, K.W. & Wilkinson, G.N. (1963) The Analysis of Adaptation in A Plant-breeding Programme. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 14 (6), 742-754. doi:10.1071/AR9630742.

Krishnamurthy, K.S., Hamza, S., Ankegowda, S.J. & Srinivasan, V. (2013) Influence of Carbohydrates, Mineral Nutrients and Plant Hormones in Alternate Bearing of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences. 4, 1960-1967. doi:10.4236/ajps.2013.410243.

Lal, R.K. (2012) Stability for Oil Yield and Variety Recommendations Using AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions) Model in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon species). Industrial Crops and Products. 40 (1), 296-301. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.03.022.

Nuryani, Y. & Hadipoentyanti, E. (1992) Hubungan berbagai Karakter Morfologi dengan Produksi Lada Varietas Chunuk dan Lampung Daun Kecil. Bul. Littro. 7 (2), 11-15.

Purseglove, J.W. (1982) Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. London, Longmans Groups Ltd. 441-450.

Ravindran, P.N., Balakrishnan, R. & Babu, K.N. (1997) Morphometrical Studies on Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.). I. Cluster Analysis of Black Pepper Cultivars. Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 6 (1), 9-20.

Sumertajaya, I.M. (2005) Kajian Pengaruh Inter-Blok dan Interaksi pada Uji Lokasi Ganda dan Respon Ganda. Disertasi. Institut Pertanian Bogor. 183 hlm.

Thiel, A., Buskens, C., Woehrle, T., Etheve, S., Schoenmakers, A., Fehr, M. & Beilstein, P. (2014) Black Pepper Constituent Piperine : Genotoxicity Studies In Vitro and In Vivo. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 66, 350-357. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2014.01.056.

Wahid, P. (1996) Identifikasi Tanaman Lada. In: Wahid, P. et al. (eds.) Monograf Tanaman Lada. Bogor, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, pp. 27-32.

Zachariah, T.J., Safeer, A.L., Jayarajan, K., Leela, N.K., Vipin, T.M., Saji, K. V, Shiva, K.N., Parthasarathy, V.A. & Mammootty, K.P. (2010) Correlation of Metabolites in the Leaf and Berries of Selected Black Pepper Varieties. Scientia Horticulturae. 123 (3), 418-422. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2009.09.017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (BUL LITTRO) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI)
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor, Indonesia 16111
Telp. (0251) 8321879, Fax. (0251) 8327010
E mail :
Website :