TANAMAN AKAR KUCING, SAMBILOTO, DAN TEMULAWAK SEBAGAI ELISITOR PENGINDUKSI KETAHANAN TANAMAN JAHE TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI

Sri Yuni Hartati

Abstract


Penyakit layu bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Ralstonia solanacearum merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sangat merusak tanaman jahe. Penyakit tersebut sulit dikendalikan, terutama karena tidak adanya varietas jahe yang tahan. Induksi ketahanan tanaman dengan elisitor merupakan salah satu strategi yang sedang diteliti untuk mengendalikan penyakit tersebut. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengevaluasi potensi ekstrak tanaman akar kucing (Acalypha indica), sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata), dan temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza), serta senyawa asam salisilat sebagai elisitor penginduksi ketahanan jahe terhadap penyakit layu. Penelitian dilaksanakan di rumah kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (Balittro) sejak 2010 sampai 2011. Ekstrak tanaman dibuat dengan cara maserasi dalam alkohol 95%. Ekstrak tanaman diformulasikan tanpa atau dengan ditambah kalsium. Tanaman jahe diberi perlakuan ekstrak tanaman (disiram dan disemprot) kemudian diinokulasi dengan suspensi R. solanacearum. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap perkembangan penyakit layu dan analisis asam salisilat dalam tanaman jahe yang masih hidup. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi ekstrak tanaman sambiloto dapat mengurangi tingkat serangan penyakit layu bakteri pada tanaman jahe yang sebanding efektivitasnya dengan perlakuan asam salisilat dan lebih tinggi dibanding dengan perlakuan kontrol. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa ekstrak tanaman sambiloto mengandung elisitor yang dapat menginduksi ketahanan tanaman jahe. Aplikasi dengan penyiraman lebih efektif dibanding dengan penyemprotan.

Keywords


jahe; Ralstonia solanacearum; elisitor; induksi ketahanan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v23n2.2012.%25p

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