AKTIVITAS PENGHAMBATAN POLIMERISASI HEME EKSTRAK DAUN SEMBUNG (Blumea balsamifera) SEBAGAI ANTIMALARIA

Eris Septiana, Aulia Umaroh, Erlindha Gangga, Partomuan Simanjuntak

Abstract


Penyakit malaria disebabkan oleh parasit Plasmodium yang dalam siklusnya akan mendegradasi hemeoglobin menjadi asam amino dan heme bebas yang toksik untuk parasit. Untuk menetralkan toksisitas heme bebas, parasit akan mengubahnya menjadi hemeozoin melalui proses polimerisasi heme. Proses ini sangat penting dalam siklus hidup parasit sehingga dapat dijadikan sebagai target obat antimalaria. Daun sembung dilaporkan mempunyai aktivitas antimalaria baik secara in vitro maupun in vivo, tetapi mekanismenya belum pernah dilaporkan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas penghambatan polimerisasi heme ekstrak daun sembung dan golongan senyawa yang terdapat pada ekstrak dengan aktivitas penghambatan terbaik. Daun sembung diekstrak dengan pelarut n-heksan, etil asetat, dan etanol 70%. Uji antimalaria in vitro dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode penghambatan polimerisasi heme. Ekstrak dengan aktivitas penghambatan terbaik diukur nilai IC50 dan dilanjutkan dengan skrining fitokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak n-heksan, etil asetat, dan etanol 70% mempunyai aktivitas penghambatan polimerisasi heme pada konsentrasi 1 mg ml-1 masing-masing sebesar 11,28; 26,26; dan 56,88%. Nilai IC50 ekstrak etanol 70% sebesar 0,978 mg ml-1. Ketiga ekstrak memiliki aktivitas penghambatan polimerisasi heme dan ekstrak etanol 70% memiliki aktivitas tertinggi. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan daun sembung yang diekstrak dengan etanol 70% mengandung golongan senyawa flavonoid, triterpenoid, kuinon, tanin, dan saponin.



Keywords


Blumea balsamifera; antimalaria; in vitro; polimerisasi heme; skrining fitokimia

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v28n1.2017.29-36

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