KARAKTER MORFOLOGIS DAN FISIOLOGIS TANAMAN NILAM DI BAWAH NAUNGAN DAN TANPA NAUNGAN

NFN Setiawan, NFN Sukamto

Abstract


Nilam (Pogostemon cablin) merupakan tanaman semak yang dapat tumbuh di tempat ternaungi maupun terbuka. Namun perubahan karakter morfologis dan fisiologis tanaman pada naungan 55% yang mempengaruhi hasil belum diketahui. Penelitian dilaksanakan sejak April sampai September 2015 di Kebun Percobaan Cimanggu, Bogor. Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan perubahan karakter morfologis dan fisiologis tanaman nilam yang mempengaruhi produksi dan mutu minyak nilam yang ditanam di bawah naungan 55% dan tanpa naungan. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 20 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah morfologi (jumlah daun, luas daun spesifik, tinggi tanaman dan jumlah cabang) dan fisiologi (kandungan air nisbi, jumlah klorofil, laju fotosintesis dan transpirasi), serta produksi terna dan hasil minyak. Data dikumpulkan dari masing-masing 20 sampel tanaman, dianalisis rata-rata dan standard error untuk menguji perbedaan antar perlakuan dan diuji lebih lanjut dengan analisis berganda Spearman untuk mengetahui hubungan antara parameter dengan hasil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tanaman nilam yang ditanam di bawah naungan 55% memiliki tinggi 87,05 cm, jumlah daun (576 helai), kandungan klorofil total (0,62 mg g-1), luas daun spesifik (191,57 g cm-2) dan laju fotosintesis (12,2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) lebih tinggi dan berbeda nyata dibandingkan dengan tanaman nilam yang ditanam tanpa naungan. Produksi terna kering 131,9 g tanaman-1 meningkat 300% dibandingkan dengan tanpa naungan, dengan kadar minyak 2,3%.


Keywords


Pogostemon cablin; naungan; karakter morfologi; fisiologi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v27n2.2016.137-146

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