HYDRAULIC LIFT DAN DINAMIKA LENGAS TANAH HARIAN PADA PERTANAMAN JAMBU METE

Joko Pitono, Nur Maslahah, Setiawan NFN, Redy Aditya Permadi, NFN Suciantini, Tri Nandar

Abstract


Produktivitas lahan kering dapat ditingkatkan bila periode ketersediaan lengas tanah pada musim kering dapat diperpanjang. Hydraulic lift sebagai proses redistribusi air tanah dari lapisan bawah yang lebih lembab ke lapisan dangkal yang cepat mengering oleh aktivitas akar tanaman, merupakan aspek ekologis yang layak diperhitungkan dalam mengelola tata air di lahan kering. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan hydraulic lift tanaman jambu mete yang diindikasikan oleh nilai recovery lengas tanah harian (RLTH) pasca kehilangan lengas tanah oleh aktivitas evapotranspirasi pada siang hari. Penelitian dilakukan pada area terbuka berdampingan dengan blok koleksi jambu mete umur 20 tahun di Kebun Percobaan Cikampek, Jawa Barat. Penilaian RLTH dilakukan pada radius 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 dan 2,5 kali jari-jari kanopi dari pangkal jambu mete sebagai faktor perlakuan tunggal yang disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok, enam ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai RLTH jambu mete selalu positif dan lebih besar dari 0,010 MPa sebagai nilai ambang minimal suatu tanaman dinyatakan memiliki kemampuan hydraulic lift. Nilai rata-rata RLTH pada kedalaman tanah 25-75 cm tidak berbeda nyata diantara posisi dari pangkal jambu mete, dan mencapai sekitar 0,25-0,28% (w/w) atau setara 0,043–0,048 MPa. Berdasarkan nilai RLTH, hasil perhitungan volumetrik penambahan air tanah harian pada blok jambu mete mencapai kisaran 0,26-1,35 l air m-2. Status lengas tanah terdeteksi masih berada pada kisaran 40-60% air tersedia, kecuali untuk perlakuan 1,0 kali jari-jari kanopi. Kesimpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah tanaman jambu mete terbukti memiliki kemampuan hydraulic lift, dan mengindikasikan turut berkontribusi memelihara kelengasan tanah pada musim kering.


Keywords


Anacardium occidentale; hydraulic lift; recovery lengas tanah harian

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v27n2.2016.105-114

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