PERLAKUAN BENIH AIR PANAS, EKSTRAK MIMBA DAN JARAK KEPYAR UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN NEMATODA (Meloidogyne spp.) TERBAWA RIMPANG JAHE

Setyowati Retno Djiwanti

Abstract


Benih rimpang jahe dapat membawa organisme pengganggu tanaman berbahaya seperti nematoda buncak akar, Meloidogyne spp. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji pengaruh metode perlakuan benih dalam menekan serangan nematoda terbawa rimpang jahe Meloidogyne spp. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor sejak 2005 sampai 2006. Rimpang jahe terinfeksi Meloidogyne spp. dicuci bersih, dipotong seberat 30-40 g, kemudian diberi perlakuan (1) perendaman dalam air panas (40°C selama 20 menit dan 50°C selama 10 menit), (2) perendaman dalam larutan ekstrak nabati mimba (2,5 dan 7,5%) dan jarak (2,5 dan 7,5%), (3) perendaman dalam larutan kimia karbosulfan EC (2 ml l-1 air), (4) pelapisan dengan tepung kimia karbosulfan ST (20 g kg-1 rimpang) dan (5) direndam air selama dua  jam (kontrol). Rimpang setelah diperlakukan, ditanam dalam polibag berisi media tanah steril di rumah kaca. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 10 ulangan. Pertumbuhan tanaman dan populasi nematoda diamati setelah jahe berumur empat bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan air panas 50°C selama 10 menit paling baik dalam menekan populasi nematoda sebesar 80,86%, diikuti perlakuan perendaman dalam larutan 2,5% ekstrak mimba (25,24%) dan pelapisan dengan tepung karbosulfan ST (23,66%). Perlakuan benih yang diuji umumnya tidak menekan pertumbuhan tanaman. Parameter tingkat populasi nematoda (dalam akar, rimpang dan tanah) lebih sensitif untuk merefleksikan keefektifan suatu perlakuan benih rimpang jahe dibandingkan parameter indeks buncak. Pada perlakuan benih terbaik yaitu air panas 500C selama 10 menit, penekanan populasi nematoda menghasilkan nilai yang signifikan dibandingkan penekanan indeks buncak pada akar dan rimpang.


Keywords


Jahe; Perlakuan benih; Meloidogyne spp.; Pengendalian

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v26n1.2015.55-62

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