Peningkatan Produksi dan Ketahanan Jahe Terhadap Penyakit Layu Bakteri Melalui Imbangan Hara dan Kompos Tanaman Elisitor

Agus Ruhnayat, Sri Yuni Hartati

Abstract


Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Cicurug Sukabumi, Jawa Barat sejak September 2011 sampai Mei 2012. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan imbangan hara dan kompos tanaman bersifat elisitor (temulawak) yang dapat meningkatkan produksi rimpang dan ketahanan tanaman jahe terhadap penyakit layu bakteri. Jahe yang digunakan adalah jahe putih besar yang ditanam pada media tanah dalam polibag. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah petak terbagi (split plot), diulang lima kali. Petak utama adalah (1) tanpa inokulasi Ralstonia solanacearum dan (2) inokulasi sebanyak 107 cfu ml-1. Sedangkan sebagai anak petak adalah imbangan  hara,  yaitu  (1) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl, (2) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 + Mn, Cu, B, (3) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 10 t ha-1 kompos temulawak, (4) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 belerang + Mn, Cu, B + 10 t ha-1 kompos temulawak, dan (5) dosis rekomendasi sebagai pembanding (500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 400 kg ha-1 KCl). Dosis pupuk Mn, Cu, dan B masing-masing sebanyak tiga kg ha-1. Inokulasi bakteri R. solanacearum diberikan dua bulan setelah tanam dengan cara disiramkan pada tanah di sekitar perakaran tanaman sebanyak 200 ml tanaman-1. Pemberian imbangan hara 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 belerang + unsur hara mikro Mn, Cu, dan B dapat meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman jahe terhadap penyakit layu bakteri sehingga dapat mempertahankan tanaman hidup sebesar 78,56% dengan tingkat kerusakan tanaman 18,43% dan meningkatkan hasil rimpang sebesar 730 g tanaman-1 setara 29,2 t ha-1. Pemberian kompos tanaman elisitor (temulawak) belum dapat meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman jahe terhadap penyakit layu bakteri.


Keywords


Ralstonia solanacearum; Zingiber officinale; imbangan hara; elisitor

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bullittro.v25n1.2014.27-36

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