Application of Cytokinins to Enhance Tea Plant Growth in The Lowlands

Santi Rosniawaty, Intan Ratna Dewi Anjarsari, Rija Sudirja


Tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) is one of priority commodities in West Java. Extensification of tea plantation in lowland and suboptimal areas is believed to contribute significantly in improving the farmers welfare. Temperature differences between the lowland and highland areas affects the metabolism of tea plants. In technical culture, centering (pruning) is required to form the shrub with ideal branching. This study aimed to determine cytokinin effects on the growth of tea plants after centering in the lowland areas. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, from November 2016 until June 2017 using 10 months old tea plant materials. The experiments used a randomized block design with 4 replications. The treatment used was cytokinin derived from coconut water with concentration of 25%, 50%, and 75%, cytokinin in the form of benzyl amino purin (BAP) with concentration of 60 ppm, 90 ppm, and 120 ppm, and control (without cytokinin). The results showed that cytokinin derived from coconut water or in the form of BAP applied in tea plants after centering, was only effective up to 3 months after application. At 1 and 3 months after application, 50% coconut water or BAP 60 ppm increased the length of stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot length, and number of shoots. Therefore, coconut water with 50% concentration or BAP 60 ppm can be used as source of cytokinins for tea plants in the lowlands after centering.


BAP; centering; coconut water; tea

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)


Ayuningsari, I., S. Rosniawaty, Y. Maxiselly, I. R. D., & Anjarsari. (2017). Pengaruh konsentrasi benzyl amino purine terhadap pertumbuhan beberapa klon tanaman teh [Camellia sinensis L. (O.) Kuntze] belum menghasilkan di dataran rendah. Kultivasi, 16(2), 356–361.

Bita, C. E., & Gerats, T. (2013). Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: Scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops. Plant Sci., 4(273).

Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., & Mitchell, L. G. (2003). Biologi (terjemahan) Jilid 1 (p. 198). Jakarta: Erlangga.

Cortleven, A., & Schmulling, T. (2015). Regulation of chloroplast development and function by cytokinin (Review Paper). Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(16), 4999–5013.

Darlina, Hasanuddin, & Rahmatan, H. (2016). Pengaruh penyiraman air kelapa (Cocos nucifera L.) terhadap pertumbuhan vegetatif lada (Piper nigrum L.). Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Pendidikan Biologi, 1(1), 20–28.

Davies, P. J. (2010). The plant hormones: Their nature, occurrence, and functions. Department of Plant Biology. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Effendi, D.S., M. Syakir, M. Yusron, W. (2015). Budi daya dan Pasca Panen Teh. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian.

Efroni, I., Han, S. K., Kim, H. J., Wu, M. F., Steiner, E., Birnbaum, K. D., Hong, J. C., Eshed, Y., & Wagner, D. (2013). Regulation of leaf maturation by chromatin-mediated modulation of cytokinin responses. Dev. Cell, 24, 438–445.

Gaddamwar, A., & Rajput, P. R. (2013). Influence of constituents of coconut water on fenugreek plant. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 1(2), 162–168.

Roman, H., Girault, T., Barbier, F., Péron, T., Brouard, N., Pencík, A., …….. Leduc, N. (2016). Cytokinins are initial targets of light in the control of bud outgrowth. Plant Physiology, 172, 489–509.

Hartmann, A., Senning, M., Hedden, P., Sonnewald, U., & Sonnewald, S. (2010). Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin. Plant Physiology, 155(2), 776–796.

Hwang, I., Sheen, J., & Muller, B. (2012). Cytokinin signalling network. Annu. Rev. Plant Biology, 63, 353–380.

Kieber, J. J., & Schaller, G. E. (2014). Cytokinins. Arabidopsis Book., doi/10.1199/tab.0168

Kobayashi, K., Ohnishi, A., Sasaki, D., Fujii, S., Iwase, A., Sugimoto, K., Masuda, T., & Wada, H. (2017). Shoot removal induces chloroplast development in roots via cytokinin signaling. Plant Physiology, 173, 2340–2355.

Lafta, A. M., & Lorenze, J. H. (1995). Effect of high temperature on plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in potato. Plant Physiol, 109, 637–643.

Lazim, M. I. M., Badruzaman, N. A., Peng, K. S., & Long, K. (2015). Quantification of cytokinins in coconut water from different maturation stages of Malaysias Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties. J Food Process Technol, 6(11).

Li, X., & Xu, K. (2014). Effects of exogenous hormones on leaf photosynthesis of panax ginseng. Photosynthetica, 52(1), 152–156.

Matsumoto-Kitano, M., Kusumoto, T., Tarkowski, P., Kinoshita-Tsujimura, K., Vaclavikova, K., Miyawaki, K., & Kakimoto, T. (2008). Cytokinins are central regulators of cambial activity. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (pp. 20027–20031).

Miyawaki, K., Matsumoto-Kitano, M., & Kakimoto, T. (2004). Expression of cytokinin biosynthetic isopentyltransferase genes in arabidopsis: Tissue specificity and regulation by auxin, cytokinin, and nitrate. Plant J, 37, 128–138.

Omo, G. D. (2013). Vegetables, growth and yield of selected water, sprayed with mature coconut. International Scientific Research Journal, V(3), 2094–1749.

Pawirosemadi, M. (2011). Dasar-dasar teknologi budidaya tebu dan pengolahan hasilnya. UM Press. Malang.

Pessarakli, M. (2005). Handbook of photosynthesis (2nd ed.). CRC Press.

Prades, A., Dornier, M., Diop, N., & Pain, J. P. (2012). Coconut water uses, composition and properties. The International Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Horticulture, 67(2), 157–171.

Priya, S. A., & Ramaswamy, L. (2014). Tender coconut water–natures elixir to mankind. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 5(8), 1485–1490.

Sariningtias, N. W., Poerwanto, R., & Gunawan, E. (2014). Penggunaan benzil amino purin (BAP) pada okulasi jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata). Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia, 5(3), 158–167.

Smith, C. J. S., Watson, C. F., Ray, J., Bird, C. R., Morris, P. C., Schuch, W., Grierson, D. (1988). Antsense gene expression in transgenic tomatoes nature. Nature, 334, 724–726.

Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2002). Plant physiology and development (3rd ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers. Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Takei, K., Ueda, N., Aoki, K., Kuromori, T., Hirayama, T., Shinozaki, K., Yamaya, T., & Sakakibara, H. (2004). AtIPT3 is a key determinant of nitrate-dependent cytokinin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant and Cell Physiology, 45, 1053–1062.

Tanaka, R., Kobayashi, K., & Masuda, T. (2011). Tetrapyrrole metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis Book 9:e0145.

Tanaka, M., Takei, K., Kojima, M., Sakakibara, H., Mori, H. (2006). Auxin controls local cytokinin biosynthesis in the nodal stem in apical dominance. Plant J, 45, 1028–1036.

Thornley, J. H. (1999). Modelling stem height and diameter growth in plants. Annals of Botany, 84, 195–205.

Wróblewska, K. (2013). Benxyladenine effect on rooting and axillary shoot out growth of Gaura lindheimeri Engelm a gray cuttings. Hortorum Cultus, 12(3), 127–126.

Yaish, M. W. F., Guevara D. R., El-kereamy, A., & Rothstein, S. J. (2010). Axillary shoot branching in plants (Chapter 3). ©Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi 10.1007/978-3-642-02301-9_3

Yong, J. W. H., Ge, L., Ng, Y. F., & Tan, S. N. (2009). The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water. Molecules, 14(12), 5144–5164.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email :
Website :

View My Stats