Effects of Fruit Maturity, Bean Fermentation and Roasting Time on Physico-Chemical Characters of Robusta Coffee

Elsera Br Tarigan, Juniaty Towaha


Robusta coffee is the most widely cultivated coffee in Indonesia. However, flavor quality of coffee is low due to improper harvesting and postharvest handling by farmers. Flavor quality mostly determined by fruit maturity level, fermentation and roasting time. The research aimed to investigate the effect of fruit maturity level, fermentation and roasting time on the physico-chemical characteristics of Robusta coffee. The research was conducted at Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), from May to July 2017, used a completely ranndomized block design with 3 factors. The first factor was fruit maturity level (red and reddish yellow), second factor was bean fermentation (24 and 36 hours) and the third factor was roasting time (10 and 13 minutes). Physical quality covered percentage of live insects, moisture content, foreign materials and amount of defective beans. Chemical quality covered moisture content, ash, fat, protein, caffeine and acidity. The results showed that physical quality of fermented beans i.e. moisture content and amount of defective beans were affected by fruit maturity level and fermentation time, while foreign materials is affected by the interaction between these two factors. Chemical quality of coffee i.e. fat and caffeine content were affected by the interaction between fruit maturity level, and fermentation and roasting time. Water and protein content were affected by interaction between fruit maturity level and fermentation time, and interaction between fruit maturity level and roasting time. The ash content is affected by the roasting time, whereas pH is affected by fermentation time and roasting time.


Fermentation; maturity; physico-chemical; roasting; Robusta coffee

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)


Andari, E. S., Wulandari, E., Gigi, F. K., Jember, U., Konservasi, B., Gigi, F. K., … Jember, U. (2014). Efek larutan kopi Robusta terhadap kekuatan tekan resin komposit nanofiller , 6–11.

AOAC. (1990). Caffeine content (assosiatio). Assosiation of Official Analycal Chemistry (AOAC).

AOAC. (2000a). Ash content (assosiatio). Assosiation of Official Analycal Chemistry (AOAC).

AOAC. (2000b). Protein content (assosiatio). Assosiation of Official Analycal Chemistry (AOAC).

AOAC. (2005). Fat content (assosiatio). Assosiation of Official Analycal Chemistry (AOAC).

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2008). SNI 01-2907-2008, Biji kopi, 1–12.

Borém, F. M., Ribeiro, F. C., Figueiredo, L. P., Giomo, G. S., Fortunato, V. A., & Isquierdo, E. P. (2013). Evaluation of the sensory and color quality of coffee beans stored in hermetic packaging. Journal of Stored Products Research, 52, 1–6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2012.08.004

BPS. (2015). Ekspor kopi menurut negara tujuan utama, 2000-2015. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BradleyJr, R. L. (2010). Moisture and total solids analysis. In Food analysis (pp. 85–104). Springer, Boston, MA.

Buffo, R. A., & Cardelli-Freire, C. (2004). Coffee flavour: An overview. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 19(2), 99–104. http://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1325

Corrêa, P. C., Oliveira, G. H. H. de, Oliveira, A. P. L. R. de, Vargas-Elías, G. A., Santos, F. L., & Baptestini, F. M. (2016). Preservation of roasted and ground coffee during storage part 1: Moisture content and repose angle. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola E Ambiental, 20(6), 581–587. http://doi.org/10.1590/18071929/agriambi.v20n6p581-587

Farah, A. (2012). 2 Coffee constituents. In Yi-Fang Chu (Ed.), Coffee: Emerging health effects and disease prevention (3rd edition) (pp.21-58). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Fujioka, K., & Shibamoto, T. (2008). Chlorogenic acid and caffeine contents in various commercial brewed coffees. Food Chemistry, 106(1), 217–221. http://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2007.05.091

Hayati, R., Marliah, A., & Rosita, F. (2012). Sifat kimia dan evaluasi sensori bubuk kopi Arabika. Floratek, 66–75.

Hendryk Czech, Claudia Schepler, Sophie Klingbeil, Sven Ehlert, Jessalin Howell, and R. Z. (2016). No Title. Resolving Coffee Roasting-Degree Phases Based on the Analysis of Volatile Compounds in the Roasting off-Gas by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PI-TOFMS) and Statistical Data Analysis: Toward a PI-TOFMS Roasting Model, 25, 5223–5231.

International Coffee Organization, (ICO). (2017). Monthly coffee market report -September 2017, 1–6.

International trade center. (2017). Wet processing of Robusta.

Marcone, M. F. (2004). Composition and properties of Indonesian palm civet coffee (kopi luwak) and Ethiopian civet coffee. Food Research International, 37(9), 901–912. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2004.05.008

Mulato, S., & Suharyanto, E. (2012). Kopi, seduhan & kesehatan. Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia.

Oestreich-Janzen, S. (2010). Vol3_Chemistry_of_Coffee_lr.pdf. In Chemistry of Coffee. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Passos, M. E. A. dos, Moreira, C. F. F., Pacheco, M. T. B., Takase, I., Lopes, M. L. M., & Valente-mesquita, V. L. (2013). Proximate and mineral composition of industrialized biscuits. Food Science and Technology, 33(June), 323–331. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612013005000046

Speer, K., & Kölling-Speer, I. (2006). The lipid fraction of the coffee bean. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18(1), 201–216. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202006000100014

Sunarharum, W. B., Williams, D. J., & Smyth, H. E. (2014). Complexity of coffee flavor: A compositional and sensory perspective. Food Research International, 62, 315–325. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.030

Toci, A. T., Neto, V. J. M. F., Torres, A. G., & Farah, A. (2013). LWT - Food science and technology: Changes in triacylglycerols and free fatty acids composition during storage of roasted coffee. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 50(2), 581–590. doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.08.007

Vignoli, J. A., Viegas, M. C., Bassoli, D. G., & Benassi, M. de T. (2014). Roasting process affects differently the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of arabica and robusta coffees. Food Research International, 61, 279–285. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.06.006

widyotomo Sukrisno. (2007). Kafein:Senyawa penting pada biji kopi. Warta Pusat Penelitian Kopi Dan Kakao Indonesia, 23(1), 44–50.

Yusianto. (2016). Panen dan pengolahan produk hulu kopi dalam: Kopi “sejarah, botani, proses produksi, pengolahan, produk hilir dan sistem kemitraan. Yogyakarta: UGM Press.

Yusianto, & Widyotomo, S. (2013). Mutu dan citarasa kopi Arabika hasil beberapa perlakuan fermentasi: Suhu, jenis wadah , dan penambahan agens fermentasi. Pelita Perkebunan, 29(3), 220–239.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p163-170


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email : jtidp@litbang.pertanian.go.iduppublikasi@gmail.com
Website : http://balittri.litbang.pertanian.go.id

View My Stats