Repellency and Insecticidal Activity of Some Botanical Extracts and Oils on Storage Pest of Ephestia cautella

Samsudin Samsudin, Funny Soesanthy, Syafaruddin Syafaruddin


Ephestia cautella is one type of storage pests that causes a decrease in cocoa bean quality. Control of this pest using chemical insecticides is not recommended because it is harmful to the environment and consumer health. The research aimed to examine the repellency and insecticidal activity of several types of extract and botanical oil against E. cautella larvae. The research was conducted in the Plant Protection Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, from March to November 2012. Botanical materials used were water extracts from Ageratum conyzoides leaves, Azadirachta indica seeds, and Allium sativum tubers, as well as oil from Reutalis trisperma, Syzygium aromaticum, and Andropogon nardus, with respective concentration of 0.5%. The insects test used was the 3rd instar larvae generated in the laboratory. Preliminary testing of the repellency activity was performed used the multiple-choice method, while subsequent testing used the dual-choice method with the parameters of larvae number remains in each treatment until 72 hours. The insecticidal activity was conducted using residual method on the feed substitute, by calculating mortality rate of the test insects. Observations were made at 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment. The results showed that water extract from A. sativum bulbs and A. conyzoides leaves have high repellency percentage on the  E. cautella larvae, i.e. of 81.33% and 78.67%, respectively. Thus, these two vegetable extracts have the potential to be used as cocoa bean protectant from storage pest attacks. The extracts from A. indica seed, A. sativum bulbs, as well as oil from R. trisperma and S. aromaticum showed insecticidal properties that are able to kill E. cautella larvae.


Ephestia cautella; storage pest; repellency; insecticidal

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)


Abo-El-Saad, M.M., H.A. Elshafie, A.M. Al Ajlan, & I.A. Bou-Khowh. (2011). Non-chemical alternatives to methyl bromide against Ephestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): microwave and ozon. Agric. Biol. J.N. Am., 2(8), 1222–1231.

Adeyemi, M. (2011). A review of secondary metabolites from plant materials for post harvest storage. Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol, 6(2), 94–102.

Anwar, A., Gould, E., Tinson, R., Groom, M., & Hamilton, C. (2016). Think yellow and keep green—role of sulfanes from garlic in agriculture. Antioxidants, 6(1), 3.

Caballero-Gallardo, K., Olivero-Verbel, J., & Stashenko, E. E. (2011). Repellent activity of essential oils and some of their individual constituents against Tribolium castaneum herbst. J. Agric.Food Chem., 59(5), 1690–1696.

Chauhan, A., & Rijhwani, S. (2015). A Comprehensive review on Ageratum conyzoides Linn. (Goat weed). Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharm. Res., 3(Special Issue), 348–358.

Dadang, & Prijono. (2008). Insektisida nabati: Prinsip, pemanfaatan, dan pengembangan (p. 163). Bogor: Departemen Proteksi Tanaman.

Dharmaputra, O.S., Sunjaya, Retnowati, I., & Ambarwati, S. (2000). Stored cocoa beans quality affected by fermentation and Ephestia cautella Walker (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) Infestation. Biotropia, 15, 58–75.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. (2015). Statistik perkebunan Indonesia: Kakao 2014-2016 (p. 68). Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian.

Ditzen, M., Pellegrino, M., & Vosshall, L. B. (2008). Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1838–1842.

Dobie, P., Haines, C.P., Hodges, R. J. Prevet, P.F., & Rees, D.P. (1991). Insect and arachnids of tropical stored products. Their biology and identification. United Kingdom: Nasional Resources Institute (NRI).

Eziah, V.Y., Sackey, I., Boateng, B.A., & Obeng-Ofori, D. (2011). Bioefficacy of neem oil (calneem), a botanical insecticide against the tropical warehouse moth, Ephestia cautella. Int. Res. J. Agric. Sci. Soil Sci., 1(7), 242–248.

Fields, P. G., Xie, Y. S., & Hou, X. (2001). Repellent effect of pea (Pisum sativum) fractions against stored-product insects. J. Stor. Prod. Res., 37(4), 359–370. doi:

Harry-Asobara, Linda, J., Samson, & Okon, E.-O. (2014). Comparative study of the phytochemical properties of Jatropha curcas and Azadirachta indica plant extracts. J. Pois. Med. Plants Res., 2(2), 20–24.

Jayanudin. (2011). Komposisi kimia minyak atsiri daun cengkeh. J. Teknik Kimia Indonesia, 10(1), 37–42.

Kamboj, A., & Saluja, A. K. (2011). Isolation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae). Int. J. Pharm. & Pharma. Sci., 3(1), 94–96.

Kong, C., Hu, F., Xu, X., Zhang, M., & Liang, W. (2005). Volatile allelochemicals in the Ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard and their effects on mites Amblyseius newsami and Panonychus citri. J. Chem. Ecol., 31(9), 2193–2203.

Licciardello, F., Muratore, G., Suma, P., Russo, A., & Nerín, C. (2013). Effectiveness of a novel insect-repellent food packaging incorporating essential oils against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Innov. Food Sci. Em. Tech., 19, 173–180.

Liu, C.H., Mishra, A.K., Tan, R.X., Tang, C., Yang, H., & Shen, Y.F. (2006). Repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils from Artemisia princeps and Cinnamomum camphora and their effect on seed germination of wheat and broad bean. Bioresource Technol., 97, 1969–1973.

Makanjuola, W. A. (1989). Evaluation of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) for the control of some stored product pests. J. Stor. Prod. Res., 25(4), 231–237.

Mandal, S. (2011). Repellent activity of eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica seed oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae) in India. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Biomed., 1(SUPPL. 1).

Manzoor, F., Nasim, G., Saif, S., & Asma Malik, S. (2011). Effect of ethanolic plant extracts on three storage grain pests of economic importance. Pakistan J. Bot., 43(6), 2941–2946.

Mikonnen, M., Abate, S., & Manhile, B. (2015). Adaptation of citronella grass oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) technologies as an alternative method for cockroaches (Blatella germanica L.). Int. J. Innov. Agric. & Biol. Res., 3(1), 29–33.

Miresmailli, S., & Isman, M. B. (2014). Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions. Trends in Plant Science.

Mishra, R. P., & Kalyani, S. (2014). Antimicrobial activities of Syzigium aromaticum L. (clove). Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(8), 22–25.

Mobki, M., Safavi, S. A., Safaralizadeh, M. H., & Panahi, O. (2014). Toxicity and repellency of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract grown in Iran against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae and adults. Arch. Phytopathol. & Plant Protec., 47(1), 59–68.

Nerio, L. S., Olivero-Verbel, J., & Stashenko, E. (2010). Repellent activity of essential oils: A review. Bioresource Technol., 101(1), 372–378.

Paluch, G., Grodnitzky, J., Bartholomay, L., & Coats, J. (2009). Quantitative structure-activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: Spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J. Agric. and Food Chem., 57(16), 7618–7625.

Paranagama, P. A., Abeysekera, K. H. T., Nugaliyadde, L., & Abeywickrama, K. (2002). Bioactivity of leaf volatiles of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Murraya koenigii Spreng. against Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Trop. Agric. Res. and Exten., 5(1/2), 17–21.

Peta, D., & Pathipati, U. R. (2008). Biological potency of certain plant extracts in management of two lepidopteran pests of Ricinus communis L. Journal of Biopesticides, 1(2), 170–176.

Pino, O., Sánchez, Y., & Rojas, M. M. (2013). Plant secondary metabolites as an alternative in pest management. I: Background, research approaches and trends. Revista de Protección Vegetal, 28(2), 81–94.

Rahman, G. K. M. M., & Motoyama, N. (2000). Repellent effect of garlic against stored product pests. J. Pes. Sci., 25(3), 247–252.

Rahman, A. & Talukder, F.A. (2006). Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. J. Insect Sci., 6, 03.

Sasaki, E. T., & Calafiori, M. H. (1987). Repellent effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Sitophilus sp. in stored maize. Ecossistema, publ., 1988, 30–33.

Shukla, A. C. (2013). Plant secondary metabolites as source of postharvest disease management: An overview. J. Stor. Prod. and Posth. Res., 4(1), 1–10. doi:

Sjam, S. (2007). Pengelolaan hama pasca panen untuk memenuhi tuntutan perdagangan internasional. Prosiding Seminar Ilmiah dan Pertemuan Tahunan PEI dan PFI XVIII Komda Sulsel (pp. 246–249).

Sjam, S., Melina, & Thamrin, S. (2010). Pengujian ekstrak tumbuhan Vitex trifolia L., Acorus colomus L., dan Andropogon nardus L. terhadap hama pasca panen Araecerus fasciculatus de Geer (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) pada biji kakao. J. Entomol. Indon., 7(1), 1–8.

Soesanthy, F., & Samsudin. (2013). Peranan ekstrak babadotan dan bawang putih serta minyak kemiri sunan terhadap serangan penggerek buah kakao. J. Tan. Industri & Penyegar, 4(2), 157–164.

Susmitha, S., Vidyamol, K. K., Ranganayaki, P., & Vijayaragavan, R. (2013). Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of Azadirachta indica (Neem). Global J. Pharm., 7(3), 316–320. doi: 2013.7.3.1107.

Tettey, E., Jonfia-Essien, W.A., & Obeng-Ofori. (2014). The impact of insect infestation on stored purpled cocoa beans. Jenrem, 1(3), 176–181.

Tusuncu, S., Emekci, M., & Navarro, S. (2001). The use of modified atmospheres for controlling almond moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Proc. Int. Conf. Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products (pp. 637–642). Gold-Coast Australia, 29 Oct–3 Nov. 2000.

Tuty, F.M. (2009). Analisis permintaan ekspor biji kakao Sulawesi Tengah oleh Malaysia. (Tesis, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang).

Ulrichs, C., & Mewis, I. (2000). Treatment of rice with neem and diatomaceous earth for controlling the stored-product Coleoptera, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science, 73(2), 37–40.

Utami, S., Syaufina, L., & Haneda, N. F. (2010). Daya racun ekstrak kasar daun bintaro (Cerbera odol/am Gaertn.) terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fab.. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 15(2), 96–100.

Walter, J. F. (1999). Commercial experience with neem products. In Franklin R. Hall & Julius J. Menn. (Eds.), Biopesticides use and delivery (p. 155–170). Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press.

Wang, X., Li, Q., Shen, L., Yang, J., Cheng, H., Jiang, S., … Wang, H. (2014). Fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of essential oils against the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus. J. Insect Sci., 14(1), 1–11.

Yang, F. L., Liang, G. W., Xu, Y. J., Lu, Y. Y., & Zeng, L. (2010). Diatomaceous earth enhances the toxicity of garlic, Allium sativum, essential oil against stored-product pests. J. Stor. Prod. Res., 46(2), 118–123.

Zandi-Sohani, N., Hojjati, M., & Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. (2012). Bioactivity of Lantana camara L. essential oil against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius). Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72(4), 502–506.

Zhang, J. S., Zhao, N. N., Liu, Q. Z., Liu, Z. L., Du, S. S., Zhou, L., & Deng, Z. W. (2011). Repellent constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts against two stored-product insects. J. Agric. & Food Chem., 59(18), 9910–9915.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email :
Website :

View My Stats