Physical Quality and Flavor of Arabica Coffee Beans Fermented by Probiotic Microbes from Civet Digestive System

Juniaty Towaha, Rubiyo Rubiyo


Civet coffee is produced through microbial digestion inside the civet’s tenue intestinal and caecum. Therefore, fermented coffee using probiotic microbes isolated from the civet digestive organs presumably will produce coffee with a distinctive flavor and aroma, which is similar to civet coffee. The research aimed to determine the effect of the fermentation period on physical quality of beans and flavor profile of probiotics Arabica coffee. The research was conducted at Belanga and Belantih Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, laboratory of Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT) Bali, laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute Jember, and laboratory of Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development Bogor, from June to December 2013. Fermentation was carried out in 2 phases: (1) fermentation using probiotic microbes isolated from civet’s intestum tenue, (II) fermentation using probiotic microbes isolated from civet’s caecum. The treatments were arranged as follows: P1 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 4 days, P2 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 5 days, P3 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 6 days, P4 = fermentation at phases I and II, each for 7 days. The result showed that probiotics Arabica coffee has a reasonably good physical quality and met the requirements of SNI 01-2907-2008. The best flavor was obtained in 2 fermentation phases, each for 6 and 7 days with a total score of 81.44 and 80.91, respectively, which then classified as specialty coffee. The qualities shown are better compared to original Arabica civet coffee.


Arabica coffee; flavor; fermentation; microbial probiotic; civet digestion

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)


Aluko, R.E. (2012). Functional foods and nutraceutical (p. 155). New York, USA: Springer.

Avallone, S., Brillouet, J.M., Guyot, B., Olguin, E., & Guiraud, J.P. (2002). Involvement of pectolytic micro-organisms in coffee fermentation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37, 191–198.

Bhat, N., Dhume, N., Dalal, L.T.B., & Goswamy, S. (2008). A text book a nutrition for nurses. First Edition (p. 74). Mumbai, India: Nurali Prakashan Press.

Bhumiratana, N., Adhikari, K., & Chambers, E. (2011). Evolution of sensory aroma attributes from coffee beans to brewed coffee. LWT Food Science and Technology, 44, 2185–2192.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2008). Standar Nasional Indonesia Biji Kopi. SNI 01-2907-2008 (p. 20). Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional.

Cecilia, K., Glanton, K., Simon, M., Renaud, B., & Fredrick, N. (2012). Volatile organic compounds in brewed Kenyan arabica coffee genotypes by solid phase extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Food Science and Quality Management, 8, 18–22.

Clarke, R.J., & Macrae, R. (1987). Coffe chemestry. Volume 1. New York, USA: Elsevier Applied Science.

Correa, E.C., Jiménez-Ariza, T., Díaz-Barcos, V., Barreiro, P., Diezma, B., Oteros, … Ruiz-Altisent, M. (2014). Advanced characterisation of a coffee fermenting tank by multi-distributed wireless sensors: spatial interpolation and phase space graphs. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2, 46–54.

FAO. (2004). Fermentation of coffee control of operation (p. 10). Roma, Italia: Food and Agricultural Organization.

Guntoro, S. (2010). Proses memproduksi kopi luwak probiotik. Proposal Paten. Denpasar: Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Bali.

Hadipernata, M., Nugraha, S., &. Tjahjohutomo, R. (2011). Peningkatan nilai tambah kopi luwak sebagai produk diversifikasi di Kecamatan Pangalengan, Jawa Barat. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Inovatif Pascapanen Pertanian III (pp. 432–442). Bogor, 17 November 2011.

Hadipernata, M., & Nugraha, S. (2012). Identifikasi fisik, kimia dan mikrobiologi biji kopi luwak sebagai acuan teknologi proses kopi luwak artificial. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Insentif Riset Sinas (pp. 117–121). Bandung, 29–30 November 2012.

Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., & Anderson, M. (2012). Animal Physiology. 3rd Edition (p. 800). Michigan, USA: Sinauer Associates Inc.

Jackels, S.C., & Jackels, C.H. (2005). Characterization of the coffee mucilage fermentation process using chemical indicator: A field study in Nicaragua. Journal of Food Science, 70, 321–325.

Janzen, S.O. (2010). Chemistry of coffee. In L. Mender, & H.W. Liu (Eds.). Comprehensive Natural Products II, Chemistry and Biology (pp. 1085–1113). Kidlington, UK: Elsevier Ltd.

Jham, G.N., Fernandes, S.A., Garcia, C.F., & Da Silva, A.A. (2002). Comparison of GC and HPLC for the quantification of organic acid in coffee. Phytochemical Analysis, 13, 99–104.

Leroy, T., Ribeyre, F., Bertrand, B., Charmetant, P., Dufour, M., Montagnon, C., Maraccini, P., & Pot, D. (2006). Genetics of coffee quality. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18, 229–242.

Lin, C.C. (2010). Approach of improving coffee industry in Taiwan promote quality of coffee bean by fermentation. The Journal of International Management Studies, 5, 154–159.

Lingle, T.R. (2001). The coffee cuppers handbook: a systematic guide to the sensory evaluation of coffees flavor (p. 72). Third Edition. Longbeach, California, USA: Specialty Coffee Association of America.

Mahendradatta, M., Zainal, Israyanti, & Tawali, A.B. (2011). Comparison chemical characteristics and sensory value between luwak coffee and original coffee from arabica (Coffea arabica L.) and robusta (Coffea canephora L.) varieties. Makassar: Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University.

Marcone, N.F. (2004a). Composition and properties of Indonesia palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak) and Ethopian civet coffee. Food Research International, 37, 901–912.

Marcone, N.F. (2004b). The science behind luwak coffee: an analysis of the worlds rarest and most expensive coffee. Ontario, Canada: Departement of Food Science, University of Guelph.

Miller, F.P., Vandome, A.F., & McBrewster, J. (2009). Acetic acid. New York, USA: Alphascript Publishing.

Mondello, L., Costa, F., Tranchida, P.Q., Dugo, P., Presti, M.L., Festa, S., Fazio, A., & Dugo, G. (2005). Reliable characterization of coffee bean aroma profiles by automated headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectro-metry with the support of a dual-filter mass spectra library. Journal of Separation Science, 28, 1101–1109.

Murthy, P.S., & Naidu, M.M. (2011). Improvement of robusta coffee fermentation with microbial enzymes. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 3, 130–139.

Nugroho, D., Mawardi, S., Yusianto, & Arimersetiowati, R. (2012). Karakterisasi mutu fisik dan citarasa biji kopi Arabika varietas Maragogip (Coffea arabica L. var. Maragogype Hort. ex. Froehner) dan seleksi pohon induk di Jawa Timur. Pelita Perkebunan, 28, 1–13.

Oliveira, A.L.D., Cabral, F.A., Eberlin, M.N., &. Cordello, H.M.A.B. (2009). Sensory evaluation of black instant coffee beverges with some volatile compounds present in aromatic oil from roasted coffee. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 29, 76–80.

Panggabean, E. (2011). Mengeruk untung dari bisnis kopi luwak (p. 97). Jakarta: PT. Agro Media Pustaka.

Redgwell, R., & Fischer, M. (2006). Coffee carbohidrates. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18, 165–174.

Rios, O.G., Quiroz, M.L.S., Boulanger, R., Barel, M., Guyot, B., Guiraud, J.P., & Galindo, S.S. (2007). Impact of ecological post harvest processing on the volatile fraction of coffee beans: I. Green coffee. JournaI of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 289–296.

Sari, A.B.T., Ismayadi, C., Wahyudi, T., & Sulihkanti, A. (2012). Analysis of luwak coffee volatile by using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Pelita Perkebunan, 28, 111–118.

Selmar, D., Bytof, G., Knopp, S.E., Bradbury, A., Wilkens, J., & Becker, R. (2004). Biochemical insight into coffee processing: Quality and nature of green coffees are interconnected with an active seed metabolism. ASIC 2004. 20th International Conference on Coffee Science (pp. 111–119). Bangalore, India. 11–15 October 2004.

Silva, C.F., Batista, L.R., Abreu, L.M., Dias, E.S., & Schwan, R.F. (2008). Succession of bacterial and fungal communities during natural coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation. Food Microbiology, 25, 951–957.

Singh, V., & Singh, G. (2013). Coffee: process technology and health benefits. International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies, 2, 153–160.

Somporn, C., Kamtuo, A., Theerakulpisur, P., & Siriamompun, S. (2011). Effects of roasting degree on radical scavenging activity, phenolics and volatile compounds of Arabica coffee beans. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 2287–2296.

Speciality Coffee Association of America. (2009a). SCAA protocols: Cupping specialty coffee. Long Beach, California, USA: Speciality Coffee Association of America.

Speciality Coffee Association of America. (2009b). What is specialty coffee? (p. 2). Long Beach, California, USA: Speciality Coffee Association of America.

Speciality Coffee Association of America. (2013). Coffee term from the Speciality Coffee Association of America. The Event Specialty Coffee of The Year. Boston, USA.

Sulisyowati, & Sumartono, B. (2002). Metode uji cita rasa kopi (p. 21). Materi Pelatihan Uji Citarasa Kopi. Jember: Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao.

Sulistyowati, Sumartono, B., & Ismayadi, C. (1996). Pengaruh ukuran biji dan lama penyangraian terhadap beberapa sifat fisiko-kimia dan organoleptik kopi robusta. Pelita Perkebunan, 12, 48–60.

Taba, J. (2012). Coffee taste analysis of an espresso coffee using nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. (Bachelor Thesis Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven Holland).

Theron, M.M., & Lues, J.F.R. (2010). Organic acids and food preservation (p. 340). New York, USA: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.

Vaseji, N., Mojgani, N., Amirinia, C., & Iranmanesh, M. (2012). Comparison of butyric acid concentration in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran. Iranian Journal of Microbilogy, 2, 87–93.

Velmourougane, K. (2011). Effects of wet processing methods and subsequent soaking of coffee under different organic acids on cup quality. World Journal of Science and Technology, 1, 32–38.

Widyotomo, S., & Yusianto (2013). Optimasi proses fermentasi biji kopi Arabika dalam fermentor terkendali. Pelita Perkebunan, 29, 53–68.

Yusianto. (1999). Komposisi kimia biji kopi dan pengaruhnya terhadap citarasa seduhan. Warta Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao, 15, 190–202.

Yusianto, Hulupi, R., Sulistyowati, Mawardi, S., & Ismayadi, C. (2005). Sifat fisiko-kimia dan cita rasa beberapa varietas kopi Arabika. Pelita Perkebunan, 21, 200–222.

Yusianto, Ismayadi, C., Saryono, A., Nugroho, D., & Mawardi, S. (2012a). Characterization of animal preference to arabica coffee varieties and cup taste profile on domesticated “luwak” (Paradoxorus hermaphroditus). Procidings of 24th ASIC International Conference on Coffee Science (pp.136–144). San Jose, Costa Rica. November 11th–16th 2012.

Yusianto, Nugroho, D., & Mawardi, S. (2012b). Enhancing arabica coffee cup taste profile by involving biological agents during fermentation process. Procidings of 24th ASIC International Conference on Coffee Science (pp. 430–437). San Jose, Costa Rica. November 11th–16th 2012.

Solichin, M. A., Anwar, & Tedjapura, N. (2007). Penggunaan asap cair deorub dalam pengolahan RSS. Jurnal Penel. Karet., 25(1), 1–12.

Suhendry, Irwan, & Ompusunggu. (2005). Analisis jumlah padatan dengan oven mini KTiga SP tipe 1 untuk menetapkan kadar karet kering di tempat pengumpulan hasil. J. Penelt. Karet., 24(1), 81–90.

Sugiyono. (2010). Metode penelitian kuantitatif kualitatif R&D (p. 380). Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta.

Sujarwo, R. M., Kopp, T., Nurmalina, R., Asmarantak, R. W. & Ummer, B. (2014). Choice of marketing channels by rubber small traders in the Jambi Province, Indonesia. Tropentag 2014: Conference Proceedings. Prague, Czech Republic.

Tan, S.S., & Humaedah, U. (2011). Kajian efektivitas metode diseminasi dalam upaya mempercepat adopsi inovasi teknologi. J. Peng. dan Pengemb. Teknol. Pert., 14(2), 131–140.

Tekasakul, P., & Tekasakul, S. (2006). Environmental problems related to natural rubber production in Thailand. J. of Aerosol Research, 21, 122–129.

Trangadisaikul, S. (2011). Oligopsony in the tire industry: a study of its impacts on the natural rubber industry in Thailand. Thammasat Economic Journal, 29(1), 129–164.

Yulita, E. (2012). Pengaruh asap cair serbuk kayu limbah industri terhadap mutu bokar. J. Riset Industri, VI(1), 13–22.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


P-ISSN: 2356-1297
E-ISSN: 2528-7222
Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia


Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (JTIDP) Editorial Office :

Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute
Jl. Raya Pakuwon Km. 2, Parungkuda, Sukabumi 43357 Jawa Barat Indonesia
Telp : (0266) 6542181
Fax : (0266) 6542087
Email :
Website :

View My Stats