Genetic Diversity Analysis of 28 Cacao Collections (Theobroma cacao L.) Based on SSR Markers

Ilham Nur ardhi Wicaksono, Rubiyo Rubiyo, Dewi Sukma, Sudarsono Sudarsono


Analysis of genetic diversity of cacao germplasm collections using molecular markers has an important role in the assembly of new superior clones. The availability of commercial and superior local clones could increase the success of new superior clones’ assembly. Hence, the genetic diversity analysis of these materials needs to be done. The study was aimed to analyze genetic diversity of 28 cacao collections based on SSR markers that would be useful for selection of parental lines. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute, Sukabumi, and Plant Molecular Biology laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, from November 2015 to May 2016. Analysis of genetic diversity was conducted using 28 cacao clones (13 superior local clones and 15 commercial clones). DNA was extraction using CTAB method, which then amplified by PCR technique using 20 SSR primers. The result showed that all SSR markers used in this study were polymorphic with an average value of PIC was high (57%). Phylogenetic tree constructed using DARwin program version 6.05 is divided into 3 major groups, which placed commercial and superior local clones together in each group. Superior local clones observed herein might have close relationships with commercial clones that have long been cultivated in Indonesia. Furthermore, some cacao clones could potentially be parental lines because they had high genetic distance. The results showed that SSR markers are powerful tools to determine potential parental lines, which is expected to increase the chances of heterosis in their progenies.


Cacao; genetic diversity; SSR markers; superior local clones; commercial clones

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P-ISSN: 2356-1297
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Accredited No.30/E/KPT/2018 on Oktober 24, 2018 by Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia


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