Klon Unggul Lokal Abaka Di Kabupaten Kepulauan Talaud

Mala Murianingrum, Untung Setyo-Budi, Marjani Marjani, Rully Dyah Purwati, Martje Evelin Rumouw, Spener S.M. Ipu, Yanes Kristina Wando

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Abaka (Musa textilis Nee.) adalah tanaman sejenis pisang yang menghasilkan serat bernilai ekonomis tinggi. Kabupaten Kepulauan Talaud merupakan wilayah pengembangan abaka di Indonesia dengan sumber daya genetik abaka yang luas, sehingga perlu dilakukan observasi dengan tujuan untuk mengevaluasi potensi hasil dan mutu serat genotipe abaka yang potensial dikembangkan sebagai varietas unggul lokal. Observasi dilakukan di lahan petani, meliputi tiga Kecamatan: Esang, Beo Utara dan Rainis yang terletak di Pulau Karakelang, Kabupaten Kepulauan Talaud pada 2017 – 2019. Pengambilan contoh tanaman dilakukan pada populasi pertanaman di tiga wilayah dengan kondisi agroklimat berbeda. Untuk masing-masing klon pada setiap wilayah diamati 10 rumpun tanaman.  Pengamatan dilakukan saat panen, mulai panen pertama hingga keempat selama dua tahun yaitu pada karakter panjang batang, lingkar batang, bobot segar batang, bobot serat kering, rendemen dan mutu serat. Hasil observasi diperoleh empat klon unggul abaka yang memiliki potensi pertumbuhan dan produksi serat tinggi. Keempat klon tersebut adalah Rote EH, Rote EMT, Rote EM dan Rote BHJ, masing-masing dengan produktivitas dan kekuatan serat secara berurutan (6,24 ton/ha/tahun dan 32,69 g/tex), (5,91 ton/ha/tahun dan 28,25 g/tex), (5,66 ton/ha/tahun dan 38,96 g/tex), dan (4,37 ton/ha/tahun dan 24,18 g/tex). Klon-klon tersebut berpotensi sebagai varietas unggul abaka dan menjadi asset daerah dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat melalui pengembangan abaka.

 

 

ABSTRACT

Superior Abaka Local Clones in Talaud Islands Regency

 

Abaka (Musa textilis Nee.) produces high economic value of natural fiber. Talaud island District is one region in Indonesia that has developed abaca.  This region also has enormous abaca genetic resources. Therefore, it is required to evaluate the yield potential and fiber quality of the abaca genotypes that has the potential to be developed as a superior variety in supporting abaca development .Observations were carried out on farmers' plantation in three sub-districts: Esang, Beo Utara and Rainis on Karakelang Island, Talaud Islands, in 2017 – 2019. Samplings of observational plants were carried out on abaca populations in three different agro-climatic areas. In each region, 10 clumps of the same morphological characters of abaca plant were observed. Observations were made at harvest time, four times during two years. Observations consisted of: stem length, stem circumference, stem fresh weight, dry fiber weight, and fiber quality. Out of 25 clones observed, four superior abaka clones had very high growth potential and fiber production, namely Rote EMT, Rote EH, Rote EM and Rote BHJ. The potential fibre production and quality for each clone are Rote EH 6.24 tons/ha/yr, Rote EMT 5.91 tons/ha/yr, Rote EM 5.66 tons/ha/yr and Rote BHJ 4.37 tons/ha/yr. These clones have the potential to become superior varieties of abaca and become regional assets in improving community welfare through the development of abaca plantation.

 


Keywords


Abaka, klon, serat, Talaud, genetik, genotipe: Abaca, Musa textilis, clone, fibre, Talaud, genetic, genotype

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v13n2.2021.%25p

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