Keragaman Mutan Wijen (Sesamum indicum L.) Berdasarkan Karakter Kualitatif

Vina Eka Aristya, Rani Agustina Wulandari, Taryono Taryono

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Sesamum indicum L. adalah salah satu tanaman alternatif penghasil minyak nabati penting. Pendekatan pemuliaan melalui induksi mutasi berusaha untuk menghasilkan variabilitas baru populasi wijen, yang secara umum tersusun dari individu homozigot. Karakter morfologi berguna untuk mengidentifikasi galur dan memastikan hasil pemuliaan mutasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi keragaman morfologi wijen hasil mutasi berdasarkan 26 karakter kualitatif. Penggalian informasi dengan metode analisis kelompok juga dikaji untuk menggambarkan variabilitas genetik pada 57 galur mutan wijen (jenis hitam dan putih) generasi M4 dan M5. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahap: tahap pertama terdiri 18 galur generasi M4, dievaluasi pada Maret-Agustus 2015; tahap kedua terdiri atas 39 galur M5, ditanam pada November 2015 hingga April 2016. Pemeriksaan penampilan kualitatif mengikuti panduan descriptor list untuk wijen. Secara umum, penilaian representatif dari sifat kualitatif pada galur mutan wijen generasi M4 akan diikuti oleh keturunan generasi M5. Dendrogram dibangun untuk membedakan galur menjadi kelompok berdasarkan matriks tingkat kemiripan. Struktur populasi utama dari 57 galur berdasarkan sifat kualitatif dikategorikan dalam dua kelompok besar. Materi genotipe kelompok I diklasifikasikan menjadi dua sub-kelompok, terdiri 17 dan 31 galur. Sub-kelompok ini menjadi bagian distribusi genotipe terbesar. Kelompok II tersusun oleh 9 galur, mayoritas dari M4. Nilai korelasi antar karakter bervariasi antara 0,7176 hingga 1,0. Keragaman morfologi antar galur wijen dipengaruhi oleh sifat genetik dibandingkan faktor lingkungan. Studi ini membantu seleksi galur terpilih berdasarkan kestabilan fenotipe. Evaluasi keragaman struktur populasi wijen mutan bermanfaat untuk program pemuliaan.

ABSTRACT

Diversity of Sesame Mutants (Sesamum indicum L.) Based on Qualitative Characters

Sesamum indicum L. is one of the alternative crops that produces vegetative oil. The plant breeding approach through mutation induction could produce new genetic variability in sesame populations, which are generally composed of homozygous individuals. The study aims were to determine the diversity of sesame-mutant lines based on 26 qualitative characters. Cluster analysis method was carried out to describe the genetic variability of 57 sesame mutant lines (consist of black and white types) 4th (M4) and 5th generations (M5). The study was done in two phases, the first phases consisted of 18 M4 lines planted in March-August 2015; the second phase consisted 39 M5 lines planted in November 2015 to April 2016. Analyses of qualitative morphological characters followed the descriptors list for sesame. In general, a representative assessment of qualitative traits in M4 lines will be followed by the offspring of M5. Dendrogram showed that the 57 mutant lines categorized into two major clusters. Cluster I were composed of two sub-clusters, consisting 17 and 31 lines. This sub-cluster was the largest part of the genotype distribution. Cluster II composed of 9 lines, where M4 were the majority. The correlation value between characters ranged from 0.7176 up to 1.0. Morphological diversity among lines were largely influenced by genetic rather than environmental factors. This study supports the selection of lines based on phenotype stability. Evaluation of the structural diversity of mutant-sesame populations could be applied in sesame-breeding programs.


Keywords


Sesamum indicum L., galur mutan, karakter kualitatif, analisis kelompok; Sesamum indicum L., mutant lines, qualitative characters, cluster analysis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v13n1.2021.1-13

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