Uji Kinerja Dekortikator Sistem Kering Untuk Daun Sisal

Gatot Suharto Abdul Fatah, Dwi Adi Sunarto, Yoga Angangga Yogi

Abstract


Tanaman sisal (Agave sisalana L.) merupakan tanaman serat alam yang dimanfaatkan untuk membuat tali, kertas, kain, alas kaki, topi, tas, karpet, papan permainan, dan bahan industri penting lainnya. Pengembangan sisal berada di daerah marginal dengan ciri utamanya keterbatasan ketersediaan air, sehingga kegiatan usaha tani sisal mulai dari budidaya hingga pasca panen harus mempertimbangkan kondisi tersebut. Untuk proses penyeratan daun sisal diperlukan mesin penyerat atau dekortikator.  Mesin dekortikator yang tersedia saat ini berkerja dengan sistem basah menggunakan aliran air. Untuk mendukung pengembangan sisal di Indonesia, dekortikator tersebut perlu dimodifikasi fungsinya untuk penyeratan daun sisal dengan sistem kering atau tanpa aliran air.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menguji kinerja dekortikator yang bekerja untuk proses penyeratan daun sisal dengan sistem kering. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan percobaan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan jumlah ulangan berbeda (5-10 ulangan), dan perlakuan disusun secara faktorial. Faktor pertama terdiri dari 2 perlakuan yaitu sistem penyeratan kering dan sistem penyeratan basah (pembanding). Faktor kedua terdiri dari 4 perlakuan kecepatan putaran silinder mesin yaitu 600 rpm, 700 rpm, 800 rpm, dan 900 rpm. Sampel daun segar yang digunakan dalam setiap perlakuan sebanyak 5 pelepah daun dengan berat total berkisar 3,5 - 5 kg.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dekortikator dapat berfungsi untuk proses dekortikasi atau penyeratan daun sisal dengan sistem kering. Kapasitas penyeratan sebesar 101 – 127 kg daun segar per jam dengan rendemen hasil serat kering sebesar 4,66 – 4,86 % serat kering per jam pada kecepatan putaran silinder 600 – 900 rpm. Perlakuan kecetapan silinder 600 rpm merupakan kecepatan yang paling efisien.

 

PERFORMANCE TEST OF DRY SYSTEM DECORTICATOR FOR SISAL LEAVES

Sisal plant (Agave sisalana L.) is a natural fiber plant that is used to make ropes, paper, cloth, footwear, hats, bags, carpets, board games, and other important industrial materials. Sisal crop development is in marginal areas with the main characteristic i.e., the limited availability of water, therefore sisal farming activities for cultivation to post-harvest must consider these conditions. To obtained sisal fibers, decorticator is needed . Currently available decorticator is set to wet systems, i.e., using water flow. To support the development of sisal in Indonesia, the function of the decorticator needs to be modified for sizing the sisal leaves with a dry or no water flow system. The purpose of this study is to test the performance of dry sysrwm decorticator to sisal-leaf-fibering process. The study was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD) with a number of different replicates (5-10 replicates), and treatments arranged in factorial. The first factor consists of 2 treatments, namely a dry system and a wet system (as comparison). The second factor consisted of 4 treatments of engine cylinder rotation speed of 600 rpm, 700 rpm, 800 rpm and 900 rpm. Fresh leaf samples used in each treatment were 5 leaf midribs with a total weight ranging from 3.5 - 5 kg. The results showed that the decotator could function for the process of decortication for sisal leaves with a dry system. Fibrous capacity of 101 - 127 kg of fresh leaves per hour with dry fiber yields of 4.66 - 4.86% per hour at cylinder rotation speed of 600 - 900 rpm. The 600 rpm cylinder speed treatment is the most efficient speed.


Keywords


Agave sisalana L, decorticator, dry system

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v11n2.2019.86-92

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