Selection Resistance of Rice Germplasm Accessions to Bacterial Leaf Blight

Dini Yuliani, Rina H. Wening, Sudir Sudir

Abstract


Seleksi Ketahanan Aksesi Plasma Nutfah Padi terhadap Hawar Daun Bakteri. Dini Yuliani, Rina H. Wening, dan Sudir. Usaha budi daya tanaman padi di Indonesia selalu dihadapkan pada berbagai kendala, di antaranya serangan penyakit hawar daun bakteri (HDB) yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Pengendalian penyakit HDB dengan varietas tahan merupakan salah satu teknik yang murah dan mudah dilakukan oleh petani padi. Aksesi plasma nutfah sebagai sumber tetua untuk perakitan varietas tahan perlu diketahui reaksi ketahanannya terhadap penyakit HDB. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyeleksi ketahanan aksesi plasma nutfah terhadap penyakit HDB patotipe III, IV, dan VIII. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi di Sukamandi, Subang, Jawa Barat pada Musim Hujan 2012/2013 dan Musim Kemarau 2013 dengan Rancangan Acak Terpisah. Petak utama adalah tiga patotipe Xoo, yaitu patotipe III, IV, dan VIII. Sedangkan anak petak adalah materi yang diuji, yaitu 20 aksesi plasma nutfah dan tiga varietas pembanding. Sebanyak 20 rumpun tanaman per petak diinokulasi Xoo dengan metode pengguntingan. Inokulasi dilakukan pada saat pertanaman menjelang stadium primordia. Ujung-ujung daun digunting sepanjang kira-kira 10 cm dari ujung daun dengan gunting inokulasi yang berisi suspensi bakteri Xoo umur 48 jam dengan kepekatan 108 cfu. Pengamatan keparahan penyakit HDB dilakukan dengan mengukur panjang gejala terpanjang pada umur dua, tiga, dan empat minggu setelah inokulasi. Hasil pengujian ketahanan terhadap HDB patotipe III, IV, dan VIII diperoleh tiga aksesi plasma nutfah yang berasal dari galur isogenik menunjukkan keparahan penyakit HDB tidak berbeda nyata dengan varietas pembanding tahan Angke pada dua musim tanam. Galur isogenik tersebut, yaitu IRBB 55, IRBB 60, dan IRBB 61. Ketiga galur isogenik tersebut dapat dijadikan tetua tahan dalam perakitan varietas unggul baru tahan HDB.

 

Abstrak

Rice cultivation in Indonesia has been faced with many obstacles, including the attack of bacterial leaf blight (BLB) that caused by bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Resistant variety was considered as the cheap technique to control BLB disease and could be used by rice farmers. Germplasm accessions as a source to build resistant varieties must be known their resistance to BLB disease. This study aimed at selecting the resistance germplasm accessions to BLB pathotype III, IV, and VIII. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Indonesian Center for Rice Research in Sukamandi, Subang, West Java at wet season 2012/2013 and dry season 2013 with Split Plot Design. The main plot was three pathotypes Xoo i.e. pathotype III, IV, and VIII. The subplot was 20 germplasm accessions and three check varieties. A total of 20 hills of rice plants per plot were inoculated by Xoo with cutting method. Inoculation was conducted before the primordia stage. Inoculation of bacterial suspension containing Xoo aged 48 hours at a concentration of 108 cfu. Observations BLB disease severity was done by measuring the longest length of symptoms at the age of two, three, and four weeks after inoculation (WAI). The result showed that three germplasm accessions from near isogenic lines were not significantly different with the check varieties (Angke) in their resistance to Xoo pathotype III, IV, and VIII in two cropping seasons. The isogenic lines were IRBB 55, IRBB 60, and IRBB 61 can be used in the assembly of resistant new varieties to BLB.


Keywords


Seleksi ketahanan; aksesi plasma nutfah padi; hawar daun bakteri.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v20n2.2014.p65-76

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