Pembentukan Koleksi Inti Plasma Nutfah Padi

Tiur S. Silitonga, Andari Risliawati

Abstract


Development of Rice Core Collection. Tiur S. Silitonga and Andari Risliawati. Rice genetic resources have been collected from almost all of the district in the provinces of Indonesia. Presently, the collection of rice genetic resourses are totally 4.200 accessions. The purpose of these activities were to test, select and grouping of rice genetic resources to develop core collection. Various activities have been conducted such as characterization and selection of rice genetic resources to agronomic performance and yield, evaluation to brown plant hopper and grassy stunt virus and their resistance/tolerance to bacterial leaf blight, blast, and drought. Development core collection with various traits such as morphology and agronomy characteristics, yield component, seed quality, resistance to pest and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses will increase the use of rice genetic resources to create high yielding varieties with various traits. The availability of various rice varieties with traits needs could cover all the areas including lowland, upland, swampy areas, and marginal land areas with endemic attacked by pest and diseases. All rice genetic resources have been characterized to agronomic performance and yield in Sukamandi experimental farm, evaluated their resistance to brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight in Sukamandi and Cianjur, and drought tolerance in Jakenan, Central Java. The results of the experiment have developed core collection by grouping varieties with their traits such as 55 accession (accs.) of varieties with long panicle (>30 cm), 25 accs. short duration (<115 days), 32 accs. of dwarf plant (<115 cm), 25 accs. of short to medium duration (<130 days) with yielded 4.7-5.9 t/ha, 35 accs. have low to medium amylose content, 20 accs. resistant to brown plant hopper and grassy stunt virus, 33 accs. resistant to bacterial leaf blight, 23 accs. resistant to blast and 30 accs. tolerant to drought.

 

Abstrak

Koleksi plasma nutfah padi saat ini lebih dari 4.200 aksesi yang dikumpulkan dari hampir seluruh provinsi di Indonesia. Untuk meningkatkan pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumber daya genetik padi telah dilakukan pengujian, seleksi, dan pengelompokan varietas dalam bentuk koleksi inti. Tersedianya koleksi inti plasma nutfah padi dengan sifat agronomis, morfologis, komponen hasil terutama mutu gabah, kadar amilosa, dan ketahanan terhadap hama dan penyakit akan mempermudah pemanfaatannya dalam perakitan varietas unggul padi umur genjah, produksi tinggi, dengan mutu beras dan rasa nasi yang enak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membentuk koleksi inti dengan cara menyeleksi dan mengelompokkan sumber daya genetik padi pada berbagai sifat penting seperti umur genjah, tanaman pendek, hasil tinggi, toleran terhadap cekaman biotik dan abiotik, bentuk beras, dan kadar amilosa. Tersedianya beragam varietas dalam koleksi inti dengan berbagai sifat yang diinginkan akan mempermudah akses dan pemanfaatan oleh para pengguna, terutama pemulia, dalam perakitan varietas baik padi sawah, padi gogo, dan padi lahan rawa pasang surut. Hampir seluruh plasma nutfah padi telah dikarakterisasi dan diseleksi terhadap sifat agronomis dan hasil di KP Sukamandi. Seleksi terhadap hama wereng coklat dan penyakit hawar daun bakteri dilakukan di Sukamandi dan Cianjur, dan pengujian toleransi kekeringan di KP Jakenan, Jawa Tengah. Dari hasil pengujian telah dibentuk koleksi inti plasma nutfah padi dengan sifat penting, antara lain sebanyak 55 aksesi dengan malai panjang (>30 cm), 25 aksesi berumur genjah (<115 hari), 32 aksesi tanaman pendek (<115 cm), 25 varietas memiliki potensi hasil antara 4,7-5,9 t/ha dan umur genjah sampai sedang (<130 hari), 35 aksesi kadar amilosa rendah sampai sedang, 20 aksesi tahan terhadap hama wereng coklat dan virus kerdil rumput, 33 aksesi tahan terhadap penyakit hawar daun bakteri, 23 aksesi tahan penyakit blas, dan 30 aksesi toleran kekeringan.


Keywords


Plasma nutfah padi; koleksi inti; pemanfaatan.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v19n2.2013.p61-72

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