Identifikasi Ketahanan Sumber Daya Genetik Kedelai terhadap Hama Pengisap Polong

nFN Asadi

Abstract


Pod sucking bugs are the main insects pest that affect both yield quality and quantity of soybean seriously. There are three kinds of insect pest ie: Riptortus linearis (F), Nezara viridula (L), and Piezodorus rubrofasciatus. The soybean plants were mainly attacked by insects during seed and pod development decreased yield up to 79%. To identify soybean germplasm resistant to pod sucking bugs for breeding base material, 100 accessions of soybean germplasm were tested in Bogor Experimental Station during the wet season 2003. Each accession was planted in 2 m x 3 m plot with 40 cm x 15 cm plant spacing. There was no pest control during flowering stage until pod maturing stage. Data collected were population of each pod suckers bugs, percentage of seed and pods damage. The accessions with 0-20% of seed damage (score 1) were selected as the resistant genotypes. The result showed that among three kinds pod suckers, population of Riptortus linearis was higher then others. It was found nearly in each plot with different insect incident (score 1-4). Based on seeds and pods damage symptom, there were identified 17 accessions resistant to pod suckers. The lowest seed and pod damage caused by the insect were found in TGM 131-1-1-1B and GM425 Si accessions. The selected accessions were suggested to be used as parent materials for future breeding program.

 

Abstrak

Hama pengisap polong merupakan hama penting yang dapat mengakibatkan penurunan hasil kedelai secara signifikan. Ada tiga jenis hama pengisap polong yang sering ditemukan menyerang pertanaman kedelai, yaitu Riptortus linearis (F), Nezara viridula (L), dan Piezodorus rubrofasciatus. Hama tersebut menyerang pertanaman kedelai selama stadia pengisian biji hingga menjelang polong masak. Serangan hama pengisap polong dapat menurunkan hasil kedelai hingga 79%. Sumber daya genetik (plasma nufah) kedelai tahan hama pengisap polong sangat diperlukan sebagai bahan dasar pemuliaan. Sebanyak 100 aksesi plasma nutfah kedelai telah diuji ketahanannya di Kebun Percobaan Cikeumeuh, Bogor, pada MH 2003. Setiap aksesi ditanam pada petakan berukuran 2 m x 3 m dengan jarak 40 cm x 15 cm. Mulai dari stadia pembungaan hingga polong masak tidak dilakukan penyemprotan hama. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap populasi ketiga jenis hama pengisap polong, skor ketahanan/persentase biji, dan polong terserang. Aksesi dengan persentase biji terserang (skor 1) digolongkan pada aksesi tahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dari ketiga jenis hama pengisap polong, R. linearis ditemukan paling banyak, hampir pada setiap petak pengujian dengan tingkat serangan yang berbeda. Berdasarkan skor gejala kerusakan pada biji dan polong telah diidentifikasi 17 aksesi plasma nutfah kedelai yang tergolong tahan terhadap hama pengisap polong. Persentase biji dan polong rusak terendah ditemukan pada aksesi TGM 131-1-1-1B dan GM425Si. Kedua aksesi tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai sumber tetua persilangan dalam program pemuliaan untuk ketahanan terhadap hama pengisap polong.


Keywords


Germplasm; soybean; pod sucking bugs.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v15n1.2009.p27-31

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