Strategi Komunikasi dalam Tata Kelola Pengembangan Kelapa Sawit di Indonesia

Heldi Yunan Ardian, Delima Hasri Azahari

Abstract


Natural resource management generally involves parties who have conflicts of power and interests. For Indonesia, palm oil development has a positive impact on people's welfare and economic gain. However, the palm oil industry's growth in its development caused controversy, especially among the international community. In this study, a stakeholder analysis was carried out to determine the degree of influence and interest of the relevant engagements and formulate an appropriate and solutive communication strategy in improving palm oil governance in Indonesia. The stakeholder analysis study was carried out based on the results of three levels of Fairclough discourse analysis based on online media publications, interviews, and observations during 2015-2018. The findings of this study indicate that there are 31 of the 40 stakeholders identified in the Crowd quadrant that showed an uproar about the controversy over oil palm development in Indonesia came from parties who did not need to be significant for governance improvement. On the other hand, stakeholders who have strategic positions are not invited to determine more actively to reach consensus. This study implies that sustainable oil palm development can be achieved if accompanied by promoting constructive communication among stakeholders to reach mutual understanding.

 

Abstrak

Pengelolaan sumber daya alam umumnya melibatkan pihak-pihak yang memiliki konflik pengaruh dan kepentingan. Bagi Indonesia, pengembangan kelapa sawit memiliki dampak positif pada kesejahteraan rakyat dan pembangunan ekonomi nasional. Namun demikian, industri kelapa sawit dalam perkembangannya menimbulkan kontroversi, terutama di kalangan masyarakat internasional. Dalam kajian ini, analisis pemangku kepentingan dilakukan untuk mengetahui derajat pengaruh dan kepentingan dari pemangku kepentingan yang terlibat serta merumuskan strategi komunikasi yang tepat dan solutif dalam perbaikan tata kelola kelapa sawit di Indonesia. Kajian analisis pemangku kepentingan dilakukan berdasarkan hasil tiga tingkat analisis diskursus Fairclough berdasarkan publikasi media online, wawancara, dan obervasi selama periode 2015-2018. Temuan kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 31 dari 40 pemangku kepentingan yang teridentifikasi berada pada kuadran Crowd yang menunjukkan adanya indikasi bahwa keriuhan mengenai kontroversi pengembangan kelapa sawit di Indonesia bersumber dari pihak-pihak yang sebetulnya tidak terlalu berpengaruh signifikan terhadap perbaikan tata kelola. Di lain pihak, pemangku kepentingan yang memiliki posisi strategis tidak diajak untuk berpartisipasi lebih aktif untuk mencapai sebuah konsensus. Studi ini memberikan implikasi bahwa pembangunan kelapa sawit berkelanjutan dapat dicapai apabila disertai dengan mengedepankan komunikasi konstruktif antarpara pemangku kepentingan untuk mencapai pemahahaman bersama.


Keywords


discourse analysis; environmental communication; palm oil; stakeholder analysis; analisis diskursus; komunikasi lingkungan; kelapa sawit; analisis pemangku kepentingan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alonso-Fradejas A, Liu J, Salerno T, Xu Y. 2016. Inquiring into the political economy of oil palm as a global flex crop. The J of Peasant Studies. 43(1): 141-165. doi: 10.1080/03066150.2015.1052801.

Anggraini E, Grundmann P. 2013. Transactions in the supply chain of oil palm fruits and their relevance for land conversion in smallholdings in Indonesia. J of Environment & Development. 22(4):391–410. doi: 10.1177/1070496513506225.

Ardian HY, Lubis DP, Muljono P, Azahari DH. 2018. Multi stakeholder engagement in Indonesia sustainable palm oil governance. J Manaj & Agribisnis. 15(1). doi: 10.17358/jma.15.1.96.

Ardian HY, Lubis DP, Muljono P, Azahari DH. 2019. Discourse interaction and policy changesin Indonesia’s sustainable palm oil governance. American J of Humanities and Social Sciences Research (AJHSSR). 3(8): 1-8.

Corciolani M, Gistri G, Pace S. 2019. Legitimacy struggles in palm oil controversies: An institutional

perspective. J of Cleaner Production. 212: 1117-1131. Doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.103.

Dharmawan D, Sarianti T. 2015. Indonesia’s crude palm oil (CPO) againts black campaign. The Macrotheme Review 4(5).

[Ditjenbun] Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. 2017. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2016-2018 Kelapa Sawit. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Pertanian.

Ekayani M, Nurrochma DR, Darusman D. 2015. The role of scientists in forest fi re media discourse and its potential influence for policy-agenda setting in Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics. 1-7. Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2015.01.001.

Eriyanto. 2012. Analisis wacana. Pengantar analisis teks media. Yoyakarta (ID): LKIS.

Glasbergen P. 2018. Smallholders do not eat certificates. Ecological Economics. 147:243-252. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.01.023.

Grimble R, Chan MK. 1995. Stakeholder analysis for natural resource management in developing countries: Some practical guidelines for makingmanagement more participatory and effective. Natural Resources Forum 19: 113–124.

Hansen SB, Padfield R, Syayuti K, Evers S, Zakariah Z, Mastura S. 2015. Trends in global palm oil sustainability research. J of Cleaner Production.: 1-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.051.

Holzinger K, Knill C, Mommerer T. 2008. Environmental policy convergence: the impact of international harmonization, transnational communication, and regulatory competition. International Organization. 62: 553–87. doi:10+10170S002081830808020X.

Hospes O, Kentin A. 2014. Tensions between Global-Scale and National-Scale Governance: The Strategic Use of Scale Frames to Promote Sustainable Palm Oil Production In Indonesia. Scale-Sensitive Governance of the Environment. [tempat tidak diketahui]: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Khor YK. 2011. The oil palm industry bows to NGO campaigns. Lipid Technology. 23:102-104. doi 10.1002/lite.201100106.

Nesadurai HES. 2013. Food security, the palm oil–land conflict nexus, and sustainability: a governance role for a private multi-stakeholder regime like the RSPO?. The Pacific Review. 26(5): 505–529.doi: 10.1080/ 09512748.2013.842311.

Omisore AG. 2015. Attaining Sustainable Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa; the need to address environmental challenges, Environmental Development. Doi: 10.1016/j.envdev.2017.09.002.

Oosterveer P. 2014. Promoting sustainable palm oil: Viewed from a global networks and flows perspective. J of Cleaner Production. 1-8.doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.019.

Orsato JO, Clegg SR, Falcao H. 2013. The political ecology of palm oil production. J of Change Management. 13(4): 444-459. doi: 10.1080/14697017.2013.851916.

Park MS, Kleinschmit D. 2016. Framing forest conservation in the global media: An interest-based approach. Forest Policy and Economics. 68: 7 –15. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2016.03.010.

Pichler M. 2013. “People, planet & profit”: Consumer-oriented hegemony and power relations in palm oil and agrofuel certification. J of Environment & Development. 22(4): 370–390. doi: 10.1177/1070496513502967.

Rist L, Feintrenie L, Levang P. 2010. The livelihood impacts of oil palm. Biodivers Conserv. 19:1009–1024. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9815-z.

Sadath MN, Krott M, Schusser C. 2013. Forest-climate politics in Bangladesh’s media discourse in comparison to global media discourse. Open J of Forestry. 3(1): 1-7. doi:10.4236/ojf.2013.31001.

Servaes J. 2017. Sustainable Development Goals in the Asian Context. Singapore (SG): Springer Nature.

Sharp L, Richardson T. 2001. Reflections on foucauldian discource analysis in planning and environmental research. J of Environmental Policy and Planning. 3(3): 193-210. doi: 10.1002/jepp.88.

Vijay V, Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Smith SJ. 2016. The impacts of oil palm on recent deforestation and biodiversity loss. PLoS ONE. 11(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159668.

Wilcove DS, Koh PL. 2010. Addressing the threats to biodiversity from oil-palm. agriculture. Biodivers Conserv (19):999–1007.

Wilkins KG, Tufte T, Obregon R. 2014. The Handbook of Development Communication and Social Change. West Sussex (GB): John Wiley & Sons Ltd.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/akp.v18n1.2020.59-74

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

Kementerian Pertanian
Kawasan Penelitian Cimanggu
Jln. Tentara Pelajar No. 3B, Kota Bogor 16111
Telp. (0251) 8333964 ext. 300-301, Faks. (0251) 8314496
E-mail: akppsekp@gmail.com
Website: http://pse.litbang.pertanian.go.id