Dampak Program Raskin terhadap Konsumsi Gizi Rumah Tangga di Pulau Jawa

Eka Rastiyanto Amrullah, nFN Kardiyono, Ismatul Hidayah, Aris Rusyiana

Abstract


Distribution of subsidized rice for a low-income household has been one of the government policies to improve food insecurity and eradicate poverty.  From 1998 to 2015, this policy was implemented to distribute subsidized rice for the poor (Raskin) program. Impact evaluation of this program on household nutrition consumption is very important because the level of nutrition consumption is one of the instruments for welfare assessment in Indonesia. One of the problems in this program implementation was the inaccuracy of the target recipient, that was some small part of the poor and near-poor did not receive subsidized rice, and vice versa. Based on these findings, this study aimed to analyze Raskin's impact on household nutrition consumption for both target recipients and nonrecipient. In this study, the data used was Susenas 2015 from Statistics Indonesia, with the scope of analysis covering Java Island. Data were analyzed using the treatment effect method, with the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Endogenous Switching Regression approaches (ESR). Statistically and significantly, estimation results using PSM and ESR stated that the distribution of Raskin increased energy and protein consumption in each household recipient group, meaning that this program could reduce malnutrition and food insecurity of the poor. To increase the benefit of this subsidized food distribution, it is suggested that the target recipient's data should be improved, and the inaccuracy of household recipients should be minimized.

 

Abstrak

Penyaluran subsidi beras untuk rumah tangga berpendapatan rendah menjadi salah satu kebijakan pemerintah dalam mengatasi kerawanan pangan dan pengentasan kemiskinan. Pada priode 1998 sampai 2015 kebijakan ini dilaksanakan melalui program penyaluran beras subsidi untuk rumah tangga miskin (Raskin). Evaluasi dampak Raskin terhadap tingkat konsumsi gizi rumah tangga sangat penting, karena kecukupan tingkat konsumsi gizi menjadi salah satu instrumen penilaian kesejahteraan di Indonesia. Salah satu permasalahan yang dihadapi dalam implementasi program ini adalah adanya ketidaktepatan penerima sasaran program, yaitu ada sebagian kecil rumah tangga miskin dan rentan miskin yang tidak menerima Raskin, dan sebaliknya.  Dengan latar belakang hasil penelitian tersebut, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak Raskin terhadap konsumsi gizi rumah tangga penerima dan bukan penerima. Data yang digunakan adalah data Susenas 2015 dari Badan Pusat Statistik, dengan cakupan analisis meliputi Pulau Jawa.  Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode efek perlakuan (treatment effect), dengan pendekatan Propensity Score Matching (PSM) dan Endogenous Switching Regression (ESR). Secara statistik dan signifikan, hasil estimasi menggunakan PSM dan ESR menyatakan penyaluran Raskin dapat meningkatkan konsumsi energi dan protein pada setiap kelompok rumah tangga penerima Raskin, berarti program ini dapat mengurangi malnutrisi dan kerawanan pangan rumah tangga miskin. Untuk meningkatkan manfaat dari program penyaluran subsidi pangan, disarankan dilakukan perbaikan data rumah tangga penerima dan kesalahan target rumah tangga penerima ditekan sekecil mungkin.


Keywords


distribution of subsidized; Propensity Score Matching; Endogenous Switching Regression; poor household; energy and protein consumption; penyaluran beras subsidi; rumah tangga miskin; konsumsi energi dan protein

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/akp.v18n1.2020.75-88

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