Permintaan Pangan Sumber Karbohidrat di Indonesia

Prasmita Dian Wijayati, nFN Harianto, Achmad Suryana

Abstract


Rice is the main staple food for Indonesian population. At the same time, per capita consumption of wheat products has increased annually.  One of main government policies related to food consumption is to accelerate food and nutrition diversification based on local food sources. Objective of this study was to understand demand for various carbohydrate food sources at household level by introducing socio-economic variables such as household size, wife working status, and characteristics of household head. This research used Susenas 2017 data at national level.  Demand for food was estimated by the AIDS model.  Rice was still as the most favorable carbohydrate source for Indonesian people. Bread and processed food were categorized as luxurious; while rice, wheat flour, cereals, and roots were as normal goods. Own-price demand elasticity for rice, wheat flour, cereals, and roots were elastic, meanwhile for bread and prepared foods were inelastic. Reducing per capita rice consumption, among others, should be conducted by increasing knowledge and awareness of household members of the importance of food consumption diversification. The government should be aware of the continuing increase in wheat flour imports in line with national economic growth due to high income elasticity for bread and processed food.

 

Abstrak

Pangan sumber karbohidrat yang merupakan pemasok utama energi untuk menjalankan aktivitas sehari-hari penduduk Indonesia masih didominasi oleh beras.  Bersamaan dengan itu, konsumsi pangan/kapita berasal dari gandum meningkat setiap tahunnya. Di fihak lain, Indonesia memiliki beragam pangan lokal sumber karbohidrat. Salah satu kebijakan utama pemerintah terkait konsumsi pangan adalah mempercepat diversifikasi pangan dan gizi berbasis pangan lokal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui permintaan pangan berbagai komoditas sumber karbohidrat di tingkat rumah tangga dengan memasukkan variabel sosial ekonomi yaitu jumlah anggota rumah tangga, status istri bekerja, dan karakterestik kepala keluarga. Penelitian ini menggunakan data Susenas tahun 2017 untuk tingkat nasional dari BPS. Permintaan pangan dianalisis dengan menggunakan model AIDS. Hasil analisis mengkonfirmasi bahwa beras masih menjadi komoditas sumber karbohidrat yang paling diminati masyarakat. Roti dan makanan jadi merupakan golongan pangan mewah sedangkan beras, terigu, padi-padian, serta umbi merupakan barang normal. Elastisitas harga sendiri untuk permintaan komoditas beras, terigu, padi-padian, dan umbi bersifat inelastis sedangkan roti dan makanan jadi tergolong elastis. Dari hasil penelitian ini disarankan upaya pengurangan konsumsi beras/kapita diantaranya dilakukan melalui peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran anggota rumah tangga mengenai manfaat diversifikasi pangan dan gizi untuk memelihara hidup sehat dan produktif. Pemerintah perlu mewaspadai berlanjutnya peningkatan impor terigu sejalan dengan  pertembuhan ekonomi nasional karena roti dan makanan jadi memiliki elastisitas pendapatan yang tinggi.


Keywords


AIDS; demand elasticity; carbohydrate food sources; food consumption; elastisitas permintaan; pangan sumber karbohidrat; konsumsi pangan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/akp.v17n1.2019.13-26

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