PEMANFAATAN BROTOWALI (Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook.f & Thomson) SEBAGAI PESTISIDA NABATI / The utilization of bitter grape (Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook.f & Thomson) as botanical pesticide

Wiratno Wiratno, Hera Nurhayati, Sujianto Sujianto

Abstract


Penggunaan pestisida kimia menyebabkan berbagai masalah yang berkaitan dengan kelestarian lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia.  Oleh karena itu, penggunaan pestisida  berbahan baku alami merupakan salah satu alternatif yang digunakan untuk mengendalikan organisme pengganggu tanaman (OPT).  Brotowali (Tinospora crispa) merupakan tanaman berkhasiat obat yang tumbuh di daerah tropis termasuk Indonesia. Tanaman tersebut sering digunakan sebagai obat untuk demam, kolera, rematik, penyakit kuning dan diabetes tipe II.  Bahan aktif yang terkandung di dalam akar, batang, daun, buah dan bunga brotowali, yang dapat mengendalikan OPT di antaranya adalah alkaloid, tanin, saponin, glikosida, terpenoid dan flavonoid beserta turunannya. Selain bersifat toksik untuk serangga, tanaman brotowali juga bersifat antijamur, antinematisida dan antimoluska.  Batang brotowali dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mengendalikan serangga diantaranya tungau, Spodoptera exigua, Nephotettix spp, Nilaparvata lugens, Plutella xylostella, Phyliotera sinuata Ateph, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton dan larva nyamuk Culex quinquefasciatus (vektor penyakit filariasis) dengan nilai efektivitas diatas 50% dan rasio efisiensi biaya produksi yang lebih rendah dari pestisida sintetik. Selain itu juga brotowali  dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk campuran pestisida organik.  Budidaya brotowali cukup mudah, walaupun belum banyak diteliti, sehingga ketersediaan bahan baku juga dapat berkelanjutan. Review ini bertujuan untuk mengemukakan hasil-hasil penelitian yang terkait dengan penggunaan brotowali sebagai bahan untuk pestisida nabati.

 

ABSTRACT

 Excessive use of chemical pesticides cause various problems related to environmental sustainability and human health. Therefore, the use of pesticides made from natural materials, such as from plants known as botanical pesticides, is one of the alternatives used to control plant pest.  Bitter grape (Tinospora crispa) is a medicinal plant  grows in tropical regions including Indonesia. The plant is often used as medicine for fever, cholera, rheumatism, jaundice and type II diabetes. The active ingredients contained in the roots, stems, leaves, fruits and flowers of this plant, which are able to control pests, are alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids and their derivatives. Besides being toxic to insects, bitter grape also has  antifungal, antinematicidal and antimollusca activities. The extract or directly used of bitter grape stem had been utilized to control insects such as mites, Spodoptera exigua, Nephotettix spp, Nilaparvata lugens, Plutella xylostella, Phyliotera sinuata ateph, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (phyllariasis disease vector), with the pesticide effectiveness above 50% and efficiency ratio of cost production lower than synthetic pesticide.  Moreover, it can be mixed with other plants as raw materal for organic pesticide.  Bitter grape can be cultivated easily, although its cultivation technology has not been widely studied.  Thus, the sustainability of the raw materials will not be a problem. This review aimed to present the results of research related to the use of bitter grape as the material for botanical pestiside.


Keywords


Tinospora crispa, pestisida nabati, metabolit sekunder / Tinospora crispa, botanical pesticide, secondary metabolite

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v18n1.2019.28-39

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