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PROSPEK FERTIGASI UNTUK PENGELOLAAN HARA PADA BUDIDAYA LADA Prospect of Fertigation for Nutrient Management on Pepper Cultivation

Joko Pitono

Abstract


ABSTRACT

 

Pepper is classified as nutrient demanding crop. In the field cultivation practices, 20-50% of the total cost of input production is for fertilizer provision. Therefore,  nutrient management is  the key to improve pepper cultivation efficiency in the field. Currently, fertilization practices in pepper cultivation in the field are lack of synchronization between  composition, dosage, frequency  and nutrient requirement. This lead to poor plant performance and much lesser production than its potential. Application of fertigation technology is enable to precisely adjust the composition and dosage of nutrients according to the physiological development of the plant, hence improving nutrient use efficiency.  Furthermore, it promotes maximum plant growth and yield. The results of previous studies indicated that the application of fertigation technology in horticultural plants induced nutrient use efficiency up to 25-40% compared to conventional fertilization approach, hence improving farmer’s income 10-15%. Even though fertigation is technically beneficial, its application in pepper cultivation in Indonesia has not yet developed. Several factors were alleged as the obstacles were lack of understanding of pepper farmers towards the superiority of fertigation technology, the technology  that are considered to be still expensive hence increasing  total cost, and the unavailability of alternative easy and cheap fertigation  technologies. The objective of this review was to describe the development of fertigation technology, its economic value and the perspective of its application in pepper cultivation.

ABSTRAK

 

Lada (Peper nigrum L.) tergolong tanaman pengkonsumsi hara tinggi. Sekitar 20-50% dari total pembiayaan input produksi lada adalah untuk penyediaan pupuk. Oleh karena itu, teknis pengelolaan hara menjadi faktor penentu yang perlu diperhatikan dalam meningkatkan efisiensi budidaya lada. Praktek pemupukan lada secara konvensional umumnya masih bermasalah pada kurang sinkronnya komposisi, dosis, dan proporsi pemberian hara dengan kebutuhan tanaman lada, sehingga menyebabkan pertumbuhan dan produktivitas aktual jauh di bawah potensinya. Melalui aplikasi teknologi fertigasi memungkinkan untuk mengatur komposisi dan dosis hara secara tepat sesuai dengan perkembangan fisiologis tanaman, sehingga selain penggunaan hara menjadi lebih efisien, juga memberikan efek positif terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman menjadi lebih maksimal. Beberapa hasil penelitian sebelumnya membuktikan bahwa penerapan teknologi fertigasi pada kelompok tanaman hortikultura dapat mengefisienkan penggunaan hara hingga 25-40% dibandingkan cara pemupukan konvensional, dengan disertai tambahan pendapatan pada kisaran 10-15%. Meskipun secara teknis fertigasi terbukti menguntungkan, namun penerapannya pada budidaya lada di Indonesia justru belum berkembang. Beberapa faktor disinyalir sebagai penyebab antara lain faktor kurang fahamnya petani lada terhadap keunggulan teknologi fertigasi, investasi pembiayaan yang dianggap masih mahal, dan belum tersedianya alternatif teknologi fertigasi yang mudah dan murah pembiayaannya. Tujuan penulisan review ini adalah menguraikan perkembangan teknologi fertigasi dan nilai keekonomian pada beberapa kasus implementasinya pada komoditas komersial lain, serta perspektif aplikasinya pada budidaya lada.


Keywords


pepper, fertigation, nutrient efficiency, yield increase / lada, fertigasi, efisiensi hara, peningkatan hasil

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v17n2.2018.117-128

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