DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK BERBASIS TEH PADA INDUSTRI PANGAN, FARMASI, DAN KOSMETIK Diversification of Tea Based Products in the Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Industry

Mukhammad Iqbal Prawira-Atmaja, Dadan Rohdiana

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Teh adalah minuman populer di dunia yang memiliki manfaat kesehatan. Selama periode 2006-2016 jumlah produksi dan konsumsi teh dunia meningkat signifikan. Intenational Tea Committee melaporkan bahwa jumlah produksi teh dunia di tahun 2016 mencapai 5,46 Juta Ton dengan jumlah konsumsi rata-rata mencapai 5,1 juta Ton. Namun, peningkatan produksi dan konsumsi teh tidak berbanding lurus dengan harga jual teh dipasaran. Rerata harga teh di rumah lelang berkisar US$ 2,6/kg.Indonesia merupakan negara produsen teh ke 7 dengan sumbangsih 3% dari total ekspor dunia. Tahun 2016 produksi teh Indonesia mencapai 125.000 Ton menurun 7% jika dibandingkan dengan tahun sebelumnya. Penurunan jumlah produksi teh tersebut salah satunya dikarenakan luas area tanaman teh dalam beberapa tahun terus mengalami penurunan dan banyak beralih fungsi menjadi tanaman hortikultura. Selain itu biaya produksi seperti upah buruh, pengelolaan lahan, dan utilitas yang terus meningkat berdampak terhadap semakin sedikit margin keuntungan yang diperoleh. Perkembangan dan terobosan teknologi dewasa ini telah banyak berperan di dalam mengembangkan keragaman produk berbasis teh. Diversifikasi produk berbasis teh mampu meningkatkan nilai tambah dan nilai jual produk tersebut. Keragaman produk berbasis teh telah banyak diaplikasikan dan dimanfaatkan pada industri pangan, industri farmasi, maupun industri kosmetik kecantikan. Meskipun begitu, kestabilan senyawa bioaktif teh seperti polifenol, katekin, theaflavin, dan senyawa bioaktif lainnya masih menjadi isu utama. Masih harus dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui kestabilan senyawa bioaktif teh pada saat pengolahan, pengemasan dan penyimpanan, dan selama distribusi hingga ke tangan konsumen. Pemanfaatan bagian tanaman teh yang lain seperti biji dan bunga teh perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut. Pemanfaatan tersebut diharapkan bisa mendukung pohon industri teh dan mampu meningkatkan keragaman produk berbasis teh di masa mendatang. Review ini merangkumkan diversifikasi produk berbasis teh yang telah banyak dikomersialkan di pasaran dan memiliki nilai jual yang tinggi.

ABSTRACT

Tea is a popular beverage in the world that have health benefits. Over the period 2006-2016 the amount of tea production and consumption in the world increased significantly. International Tea Committee reported that amount of world tea production in 2016 reached 5.46 million tons with total consumption reaching 5. 1 million tons. However, the increase in tea production and consumption is not directly proportional to the selling price of tea in the market. The average price of tea at the auction house is around US $ 2.6 / kg. Indonesia is the 7th tea producing country with a contribution of 3% of total world exports. In 2016 Indonesian tea production reached 125,000 tons, down 7% compared to the previous year. Decrease the amount of tea production due to a decline in the area of tea and many converted into horticultural crops. The condition is worsen by the increasing cost of processing production in the plantation and in the factory so that the profit margin obtained is very low. Recently developments and technological breakthroughs have much role in developing diversified tea products so as to increase the selling tea products. The diversity of tea-based products have been widely applied in the food industry, the pharmaceutical industry, as well as beauty cosmetic industries. Nevertheless, the stability of bioactive compounds such as tea polyphenols, catechins, theaflavins, and other bioactive compounds still a major issue. Further research is still needed to determine the stability of tea bioactive compounds during processing, packaging and storage, and during distribution to consumers. Utilization of other plant parts such as seed tea and flower tea needs to be done further research. The utilization is expected to support the tea industry tree and be able to increase the diversity of tea-based products in the future. This review we will summarize the diversification of tea-based products that have been widely commercialized on the market and have high selling points


Keywords


Teh, diversifikasi produk, polifenol, katekin, theaflavin. / Tea, product diversification, polyphenol, katekin, theaflavin.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v17n2.2018.150-165

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