SINTESIS DAN POTENSI APLIKASI LIPIDA TERSTUKTUR BERBASIS MINYAK KELAPA DAN MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT UNTUK INDUSTRI PANGAN FUNGSIONAL /Synthesis and Potential Applications of Coconut and Palm Oils Based Structured Lipid for Functional Food Industry

Siti Nurhasanah, Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Nur Wulandari, Joni Munarso

Abstract


Berkembangnya teknologi proses pengolahan pangan berdampak pada kebutuhan lipida dengan sifat khusus untuk diaplikasikan pada produk tertentu. Sifat lipida alami belum tentu sesuai dengan kebutuhan industri, baik dari segi sifat fisikokimia, gizi, maupun sifat fungsional lain yang diinginkan.  Karena itu, perlu dilakukan modifikasi untuk membentuk lipida dengan nilai tambah tertentu. Salah satunya melalui modifikasi stuktur molekuler lipida; yaitu untuk menghasilkan lipida terstruktur (structured lipids, SL). Lipida terstrukturadalah lipida yang termodifikasi, dengan penambahan dan/atau pengaturan posisi asam-asam lemak pada kerangka gliserolnya untuk tujuan menghasilkan lipida dengan nilai tambah sesuai aplikasinya.  Perbedaan jenis dan posisi asam-asam lemak pada kerangka gliserol akan menentukan sifat kimia, fisika, biokimia lipida dan fungsionalnya yang berpotensi memberikan nilai tambah tertentu. Sintesis SL dengan interesterifikasi secara kimia maupun enzimatis memungkinkan potensi aplikasi yang lebih luas, khususnya untuk industri pangan fungsional. Saat ini telah beredar di pasaran produk SL dengan nilai tambah tertentu; misalnya mudah diserap tubuh, kandungan kalori lebih rendah, dan mempunyai komposisi asam lemak mirip dengan lemak ASI untuk formulasi makanan bayi.  Minyak kelapa dan kelapa sawit sebagai hasil perkebunan, yang masing-masing memiliki keunggulan kaya asam lemak rantai menengah dan kaya asam lemak tak-jenuh merupakan bahan bakupotensial untuk pengembangan SL dengan nilai tambah khas.Pembuatan SL sesuai dengan kebutuhan industri pangan fungsional ini dapat meningkatkan daya saing produk perkebunan dalam pasar dunia. Hilirisasi riset perlu dikembangkan agarmampu menghasilkan inovasiyang dapat diaplikasikan di industri, yang melibatkan komitmen pemerintah maupun pelaku usaha.

  

ABSTRACT

The growth of process technology in food processing affecting the needs of lipid with special characteristics for specific products. The characteristic of natural lipid is not always suitable with industry requirement, either from its physicochemical characteristic, nutrition, or from other desirable functional characteristics. Therefore it is necessary to develop modification technique to produce lipid with desirable added value, such as generating structured lipids (SL). Structured lipids is modified lipid, with the addition and/or arrangement of the fatty acid position on its glycerol backbone.The difference of types and positions of fatty acids on glycerol backbone will determine the chemical, physical, biochemical characteristic and the functionality of the lipid. Structured lipids synthesed by chemical or enzymatic interesterification will potentially have broader potential of applications, especially for functional food industry. Currently, SL products with several added values, such as more easily absorbed, lower calorie content, or having fatty acid composition similar to that of breastmilk lipid for baby food formulation, have been introduced in the market. Coconut oil and palm oil are, respectively, known to be rich in medium saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acids. Both oil are potential to be used for development of SL. Structured lipids production suitable for functional food industry could increase the competitiveness of coconut and palm oil as plantation comodities in world market. Downstream policy research by promoting research and development toward industrial application is needed, involving commitment from government and private sectors.

 


Keywords


Interesterifikasi; pangan fungsional; minyak kelapa; minyak kelapa sawit; structured lipids; Interesterification; functional food; coconut oil; palm oil; structured lipids

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Adhikari P., X.M. Zhu, A. Gautam, J.A. Shin, J.N. Hu, J.H. Lee, C.C. Akoh, K.T. Lee. 2010. Scaled-up Production of Zero Trans Margarine Fat Using Pine NutOil and Palm Stearin. Food Chemistry. 119(4): 1332-1338.

Akanbi, T.O., A.J. Sinclair, C.J. Barrow. 2014. Pancreatic lipase selectively hydrolyses DPA over EPA and DHA due to location of double bonds in the fatty acid rather than regioselectivity. Food Chemistry. (160): 61–66. Doi: 10.1016/ j.foodchem.2014.03.092.

Akbaraly, T.N., S. Sabia, M.J. Shipley, G.D. Batty, M. Kivimaki. 2013. Adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and future depressive symptoms: evidence for sex differentials in the Whitehall II study. Am J Clin Nutr. (97): 19-27

Alvarez, D., Y. L. Xiong, M.Castillo, F. A. Payne dan M. D. Garrido. 2012. Textural and visoelastic properties of pork frankfurters containing canola-olive oils, rice bran and walnut. Meat Science. (92): 8-15.

Baer A.A., A.C. Dilger. 2014. Effect of fat quality on sausage processing, texture, and sensory characteristics. Meat Science. (96): 1242–1249.

Doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.11.001.

Bebarta B., M.Jhansi, P. Kotasthane, Y.R. Sunkireddy. 2013. Medium chain and behenic acid incorporated structured lipids from sal, mango and kokum fats by lipase acidolysis. Food Chemistry. (136):889–894.

Bourlieu C., S. Bouhallab, C. Lopez. 2009. Biocatalyzed modifications of milk lipids: applications and potentialities. Trends in Food Science and Technology. (20):458-469. Doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2009.05.005.

Bowen-Forbes C.S. and A. Goldson-Barnaby. 2017. Fats. The University of the West Indies.Jamaica.

Brewer, M. S. 2012. Reducing the fat content in ground beef without sacrificing and palm stearin to produce low-trans spreadable fat. Food Chemistry. (120): 1–9.

Casas-Godoy L., A. Marty, G. Sandoval, S. Ferreira-Dias. 2013. Optimization of medium chain length fatty acid incorporation into olive oil catalyzed by immobilized Lipida from Yarrowia lipolytica. Biochemical Engineering Journal. (77) : 20-27.

Coelho, D.F., L.O. Pereira-Lancha, D.S. Chaves, D. Diwan, R. Ferraz, P.L. Campos-Ferraz, J.R. Poortmans and A.H. Lancha Junior. 2011. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters. J Med Biol Res. 44(10): 966-972. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500107.

Colmenero, F.J., S.L. Sandoval, R. Boua, S. Cofrades, A.M. Herrero, C.R. Capillas. 2015. Novel applications of oil structuring methods as a strategy to improve the fat content of meat products. Trends in Food Science and Technology. (44): 177-188. Doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2015.04.011.

Dayrit, F. 2014. Lauric Acid is a Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Cococonut Oil is a Medium-Chain Triglyceride. Philippine Journal of Science. 143 (2): 157-166.

Dubey P., A.P. Jayasooriya, S.K. Cheema. 2011. Diets enriched in fish-oil or seal-oil have distinct effects on lipid levels and peroxidation in BioF1B hamsters. Nutr Metab Insights; Vol. 4. Pp. 7–17

Fauzi S.H.M., N.A. Rashid, Z. Omar. 2012. Effects of chemical interesterification on the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and soybean oil. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. (16): 297 – 308.Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.086.

Feltrin, K. L., T. Little, J.H.Meyer, M. Horowitz, T. Rades, J. Wishart, C. Feinle-Bisset.2008. Comparative effects of intraduodenal infusions of lauric and oleic acids on antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma cholecystokinin and peptide YY, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87(5):1181-1187.

Ferreira, A.F., A.P.S. Dias, C.M. Silva, M. Costa, 2016. Effect of low frequency ultrasound on microalgae solvent extraction: analysis of products, energy consumption and emissions. Algal Res. (14): 9–16.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. Rome.

Glicerina, V., F. Balestra, M. Dalla Rosa, S. Romani. 2013. Rheological, textural and calorimetric modifications of dark chocolate during process. Journal of Food Engineering. 119(1) : 173-179.

Gunston F. 2011. Palm oil. Vegetable oils in food technology : Composition, Properties and Uses. Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Hariyadi, P. 1996. Katalisis enzimatis dalam pelarut organik. J. Ilmu dan tek. Pangan. 1 (1) : 52-60.

Hariyadi, P. 2009. High grade specialty fats dari sawit. Sky is the limit. Jurnal Infosawit. Edisi khusus : 41 -43.

Jahurul, M.H.A., I.S.M. Zaidul, N.A.N Nik, F. Sahena, M.Z. Abedin, A. Mohamed, O.A.K. Mohd. 2014. Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin. Food Chemistry. (154): 323–329.

Kanjilal, S., K.S. Shanker, B.V.S.K. Rao, D.Indrani, S.R.Y. Reddy, R.B.N Prasad, B.R. Lokesh. 2016. Application of low calorie hypocholesterolemic structured lipid as potential bakery fat. International Food Research Journal. 23(2): 854-859.

Khodadadia M., S. Aziza, R. St-Louis, S. Kermasha. 2013. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis and characterization of flaxseed oil-based structured lipids. Journal of Functional Foods. (5): 424–433. Doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.11.015.

Lee, J.H., J.M. Son, C.C. Akoh, R.R. Mee, K. Lee. 2010. Optimized synthesis of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol-rich triacylglycerol via interesterification catalyzed by a lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus. Journal of New Biotechnology. (11): 38-45.

Lichtenstein A.H. 2014. Dietary trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk: past and present. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 16(8):433.

Lunn J., H.E. Theobald. 2006. The health effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids. J British Nutrition Foundation. (31): 178–224.

Manzocco, L., S. Calligaris, S. Pieve, S. Marzona, M. C. Nicoli. 2012. Effect of monoglyceride-oil-water gels on white bread properties. Food Research International, 49 (2): 778-782. Doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.011

Mayamol P.N., C. Balachandran, T. Samuel, A. Sundaresan, C. Arumughan. 2007. Zero trans shortening using rice bran oil, palm oil and palm stearin through interesterification at pilot scale. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. (44): 18–28. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01627.x.

McCarty, M. F. and J.J DiNicolantonio. 2016. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity. Open heart. 3(2).

Mounika, C., R.S. Yella. 2012. Speciality fats enriched with behenic and medium chain fatty acids from palm stearin by lipase acidolysis. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Doi; 10.1007/s11746-012-2059-1.

Nichols, D. S., T. B.Jordan, and N. Kerr. 2011. The nomenclature and structure of lipids. In Z. E. Sikorski & A. Kolakowska, Chemical, biological and functional aspects of food lipids. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

Nugrahinia A.D. and T.H. Soerawidjaja. 2015. Directed Interesterification of Coconut Oil to Produce Structured Lipid. Agriculture and Agricucural Science Procedia. (3): 248 – 254. Doi: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.01.048.

Nurhasanah S., N. Wulandari, S.J. Munarso, P. Hariyadi. 2017. Stabilitas oksidasi lipida terstruktur berbasis minyak kelapa dan kelapa sawit. Buletin Palma. 18 (2) : 53-62.

Osborn H.and C.C. Akoh. 2002. Structured lipids: Novel fats with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science. (1): 110–120. Doi: 10.1111/ j.1541-4337.2002.tb00010.x

Qin X.L., J.F. Zhong, Y.H. Wang, B.Yang, D. M.Lan, F.H. Wang. 2014. 1,3-Dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol-rich human milk fat substitutes: production, purification, characterization and modeling of the formulation. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116(3): 282-290. Doi: 10.1002/ejls.201300343.

Reshma, M.V., S.S. Saritha, C. Balachandran, C. Arumughan. 2008. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm stearin and rice bran oil blends for preparation of zero trans shortening with bioactive phytochemicals. Bioresource Technology. (99):5011–5019. Doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007. 09.009.

Sánchez-Villegas A., L. Verberne, J. De Irala, M. Ruiz-Canela, E. Toledo, L. Serra-Majem, Martínex-González. 2011. Dietary fat intake and the risk of depression: the SUN project. PlosOne. (6): 162-168.

Sciarini, L. S., F. V. Bockstaele, B. Nusantoro, G.T. Pérez and K. Dewettinck. 2013. Properties of sugar-snap cookies as influenced by lauric-based shortenings. Journal of Cereal Science, 58(2): 234-240. Doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.07.

Shahidi F. 2013. Oilseed Processing and Fat Modification Biochemistry of Foods. Dalam Eskin, N.A.M and F. Shahidi. Biochemistry of Foods (3rd Edition). Academic Press. London. p. 363–384.

Shekarchizadeh, H. and M. Kadivar. 2012. A study on parameters of potential cocoa butter analogue synthesis from camel hump by lipase-catalysed interesteri-fication in supercritical CO2 using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, (135):155–160.

St-Onge, M.P. 2005. Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts:potential functional foods for weight control. Am.J. Clin. Nutr. 81:7–15.

Teegala, S.M., W.C. Willett, D. Mozaffarian. 2009. Consumption and health effects of trans fatty acids: A review. J AOAC Int.(92): 250-257.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n2.2017.111-121

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Perspektif

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan
Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu
Bogor 16111

ISSN : 1412-8004

E-ISSN: 2540-8240

Perspektif Review Penelitian Tanaman Industri has been indexed by