PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT LAPUK AKAR DAN PANGKAL BATANG TEBU (Xylaria warbugii ) DI SUMATERA DAN STRATEGI PENGENDALIANNYA / The Development of Root and Basal Stem Rots of Sugarcane (Xylaria warbugii) in Sumatera and its Control Strategies

Titiek Yulianti

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 Di Indonesia, penyakit lapuk akar dan pangkal batangtebu yang disebabkan oleh jamur Xylaria warburgii, baru ditemukan di perkebunan tebu Lampung dan Palembang. Kerugian yang ditimbulkan cukup besar dan penyebarannya semakin luas.  Perubahan alih fungsi lahan dan intensifikasi usaha perkebunan tebu selama tiga dasa warsa menyebabkan degradasi kesuburan tanah, menipisnya bahan organik, dan perubahan dominasi dan komposisi mikroba. Kondisi ini dapat memunculkan penyakit baru, misalnya penyakit lapuk akar dan batang. Gejala penyakit lapuk akar dapat dilihat pada perubahan warna daun yaitu menjadi kekuningan, layu kemudian mengering dan akhirnya tanaman mati.  Di area yang endemik, gejala terlihat lebih jelas sebagai kelompok pertanaman yang kuning dan kering.   Jika tidak ada inang baru, jamur bertahan dalam tunggul tebu lebih dari tujuh bulan sebagai saprofit dan akan kembali menginfeksi akar/pangkal batang tebu jika sudah tersedia. Kemampuannya bertahan hidup menyebab-kan jamur ini sulit dikendalikan. Sampai saat ini pengendalian menggunakan fungisida selain mahal dan berdampak negatif, belum memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, Varietas tebu yang tersedia tidak ada yang tahan.  Mengingat X. warbugii merupakan jamur tular tanah, maka strategi pengendaliannya tidak hanya dengan menangani jamur patogennya saja, tetapi juga harus mengembalikan keseimbangan ekosistem mikro dalam tanah melalui pengelolaan tanah.   Perbaikan pengelolaan tanah dapat dilakukan dengan mengintegrasikan beberapa komponen pengendalian, seperti pengolahan tanah minimum, solarisasi, penambahan pupuk silikon dan bahan organik termasuk vermikompos yang diperkaya dengan antagonis. Oleh karena itu, perlu upaya penelitian serius untuk menguji efektivitas komponen-komponen tersebut di atas dan kelayakan ekonominya kemudian memadukannya agar memperoleh hasil yang optimum.

 

ABSTRACT

 

In Indonesia, root and basal stem rots of sugarcane caused by Xylaria warburgii is only found in sugarcane plantations in Lampung and Palembang. However, the  disease has expanded gradually and caused significant yield losses. Land conversion and sugarcane plantation intensification for more than three decades have caused  soil degradation, shallow organic matter and a changed of microbial domination and composition. This conditions triggered a new borne disease, such as root and basal stem rots. 

As e result, the leaves became yellow, wilt, dry and eventually plant death.  In endemic area, the late symptomwas more clearly as yellow and dry spots., the fungus survive more than seven months in the diseased stubble as a saprophyte and would infect root or basal stem later. The capability of the fungus survived in the absence of the hosts made it difficult to control. So far, fungicide was used to control the disease, and yet has not given satisfactory result.  Beside expensive, fungicide was also gave negative impact to the environment.  Meanwhile, resistant varieties for the fungus was not available.  X. warbugii is a soil-borne pathogen, so the control strategy should not only control the fungus, but also repaired the soil microecosystem balance through improving soil management.  The management could be applied by integrating some control components such as minimum tillage, solarization, addition of silicon fertilizer and organic matter including antagonist enriched vermicompost are neaded to control the disease.  Therefore, we need intense studies to test effectiveness of those components and their feasibilty, and then integrate them to gain optimum result.

 

 


Keywords


Tebu; Xylaria warbugii; pengendalian terpadu; vermikompos; solarisasi; Sugarcane; Xylaria warbugii; integrated disease control; vermicompost; solarization

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n2.2017.122-133

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