PENEKANAN FLUKTUASI PRODUKSI CENGKEH (Syzygium aromaticum) DENGAN MEKANISME FISIOLOGI / Suppression of Fluctuations Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Production With Fisiology Mecanism

Ireng Darwati

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Produksi tanaman cengkeh berfluktuasi setiap 3-4 tahun sekali,  disebabkan variasi perubahan iklim yang berpengaruh terhadap fitohormon dan juga ekspresi gen pembungaan. Perubahan iklim yang sangat sensitif pada tanaman cengkeh yaitu perubahan musim penghujan, penyinaran dan suhu. Hujan yang cukup dan diikuti musim kering 2-3 bulan sangat dibutuhkan untuk induksi pembungan dan perkembangan bunga cengkeh. Pembungaan cengkeh dikendalikan oleh faktor genetik, fisiologi, iklim dan cara budidaya yang saling berhubungan. Hujan yang terus menerus akan mempengaruhi penyinaran matahari berdampak pada mekanisme kerja gen CONSTANS (CO) yang mengatur gen pembungaan. Perubahan tunas vegetatif dan generatif diatur oleh ekspresi gen TFL1, gen ini juga akan mempengaruhi ekspresi LFY dan AP1 untuk perkembangan infloresen. Curah hujan yang optimal dan nutrisi yang cukup akan meningkatkan pertumbuhan tunas tanaman sehingga kandungan GA dan auksin endogen meningkat, dan berpengaruh pada inisiasi pembungaan yang berdampak terhadap menurun produksi serta menyebabkan fluktuasi hasil.  Fluktuasi hasil cengkeh dapat dilakukan dengan pemberian zat penghambat pertumbuhan (retardant) dengan cara mengatur volume pembungaan. Beberapa penelitian aplikasi retardant yang telah dilakukan dapat menekan fluktuasi hasil cengkeh dengan baik. Pada tanaman cengkeh umur 5 tahun dengan pemberian paklobutrazol 2g/pohon dapat meningkatkan bobot kering bunga sebesar 2,68%. Sedangkan cengkeh umur 8 tahun dengan aplikasi paklobutrazol 2,5 g/poho dan 30 tahun dengan paklobutrazol 5g/pohon memberikan hasil bunga kering 6,038 kg/pohon dan15,75kg/pohon secara berurutan lebih tinggi dibanding tanpa pemberian retardan.

 

ABSTRACT

 Clove plant production fluctuates every 3-4 years, this is due to variations in climate change that affect the phytohormone and also the expression of flowering gene. Climate change that is very sensitive to clove plants that changes the rainy season, irradiation and temperature. Adequate rain and followed by 2-3 months dry season is required for the induction and development flowering of clove. Cloves flowering is controlled by genetic, climatic and related physiology. Continuous rain will affect light intencity exposure and is associated with CONSTANS (CO) genes that depend on photoperiods, thus affecting other flowering genes.  Changes of vegetative to generative shoots are governed by TFL1 gene expression, this gene will also affect the expression of LFY and AP1 for the development of inflorescence. High rainfall and sufficient nutrients will increase the growth of bud shoots so that the content of GA and auxin endogenous increases. Increased GA will suppress the initiation of flowering so that production will decrease and may cause fluctuations of the product. To overcome the fluctuation of production can be giving retardant to prevent excessive flowering and also increase the flowering so that the difference of production each year are not too high. Some studies of retardant applications that have been performed show good results. In cloves aged 5 years with the provision of 2g/tree paclobutrazol can increase the weight of dry flowers by 2.68%. While the 8-year-old cloves with the application of 2.5g/tree paclobutrazol and 30-year-old with 5g/tree paclobutrazol gave 6.038kg/tree and 15.75kg/tree dried flowers higher than without application of retardant, respectively.

 


Keywords


Kata kunci: fluktuasi, Syzygium aromaticum, fisiologi. / Keywords: Fluctiation, Syzygium aromaticum, physiology

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n2.2017.%25p

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