PEMANFAATAN PUPUK HAYATI (BIOFERTILIZER) PADA TANAMAN REMPAH DAN OBAT / Biofertilizer Utilization on Spices and Medicinal Plants

Andriana Kartikawati, Octivia Trisilawati, Ireng Darwati

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Peningkatan hasil produksi pertanian khususnya pada tanaman rempah dan obat lebih banyak menggunakan pupuk kimia. Hal tersebut dapat memberikan efek negatif bagi lingkungan, antara lain degradasi lahan baik secara fisik (degradasi struktur tanah), kimia dan biologi, serta polusi air tanah. Solusi yang diupayakan untuk menanggulangi dampak penggunaan pupuk kimia yaitu pemanfaatan mikroorganisme dalam pupuk hayati. Aplikasi pupuk hayati sudah dikembangkan secara luas pada tanaman rempah dan obat. Pupuk hayati menjaga lingkungan tanah yang kaya hara mikro dan makro melalui fiksasi nitrogen, pelarutan fosfor dan mineralisasi kalium, pelepasan zat pengatur tumbuh tanaman, produksi antibiotik dan biodegradasi bahan organik tanah. Mikroorganisme yang digunakan dalam pupuk hayati terdiri dari berbagai macam, seperti mikoriza, fungi dan bakteri, baik yang bersimbiosis dengan tanaman maupun yang hidup bebas di lingkungan.  Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pupuk hayati pada tanaman rempah dan obat. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa pupuk hayati memberikan pengaruh positif pada berbagai tanaman rempah dan obat seperti lada, cengkeh, jahe, artemisia, ketumbar, panili, adas, dan lain-lain. Hal ini dapat dilihat pada peningkatan parameter pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi, jumlah dan luas daun, perakaran), maupun hasil senyawa metabolit sekunder yang dihasilkan. Penggunaan pupuk hayati pada tanaman memberi dampak kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan.

 

 ABSTRACT

 

Increased agricultural production, especially in spices and medicinal plants utilize chemical fertilizers wildly. It could provide negative effect to the environment, including land degradation by physically (soil structure degradation), chemically and biologically, and also groundwater pollution. Attempted solutions to cope with the impact of chemical fertilizers utilization is by using beneficial microorganisms in the form of biofertilizer. Biofertilizer maintains soil environment having rich in micro and macro nutrients through N fixation, solubilize and mineralize phosphorus and potassium, release plant growth regulators, antibiotic production and biodegradation of soil organic matter. There are various kinds of microorganisms contain in biofertilizers, such as mycorrhiza, fungi and bacteria, which have mutual symbiotic with plants and also free-living microorganisms in their environment. The application of biological fertilizer has been developed extensively on spices and medicinal plants. Many studies have been conducted to find the effect of biofertilizer on spices and medicinal plants. The results showed that the usage of biofertilizers have a positive effect on various crops and medicinal spices such as pepper, clove, ginger, artemisia, coriander, vanilla, fennel, and others. It can be seen on the increase of plant growth and secondary metabolites content produced by these plants.

 


Keywords


Kata kunci: pupuk hayati, tanaman rempah dan obat /Key words: biofertilizers, spices and medicinal plants.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n1.2017.33-43

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