PENGOLAHAN TANAH DALAM PENYIAPAN LAHAN UNTUK TANAMAN KARET Soil Tillage in Land Clearing for Rubber Plantation

Priyo Adi Nugroho

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Usaha agribisnis karet masih menjadi pilihan bagi banyak perusahaan perkebunan di Indonesia. Sebagai bagian dari kegiatan penyiapan lahan, pengolahan tanah menjadi salah satu kultur teknis yang cukup penting. Pengolahan tanah secara mekanis dengan tahapan Ripping, ploughing dan harrowing sudah sejak dulu dilaksanakan di banyak perkebunan besar di wilayah Sumatera. Harga komoditas karet yang cukup berfluktuatif dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, mengakibatkan banyak perusahaan tidak melakukan pengolahan tanah ketika melakukan tanaman ulang (replanting). Pengolahan tanah memiliki manfaat yang sangat besar dalam mendukung budidaya tanaman karet. Bulk density tanah yang diolah akan menurun sehingga tanah menjadi gembur dan memudahkan penetrasi akar tanaman karet, aerasi tanah menjadi lebih baik karena peningkatan nilai porositas. Selain proses pengerjaannya yang lebih cepat, pengolahan tanah secara mekanis dapat mempersingkat periode belum menghasilkan dan cukup efektif dalam memusnahkan sumber inokulan penyakit jamur akar putih (JAP). Pengolahan tanah yang terlalu berat berpotensi menimbulkan dampak negatif diantaranya laju dekomposisi bahan organik meningkat dan dalam jangka panjang tanah akan mengalami  penurunan kandungan bahan organik. Dekomposisi bahan organik akan melepaskan gas CO2 yang berbahaya bagi lingkungan. Larangan pembakaran dan biaya penyiapan lahan yang cukup besar telah menyebabkan beberapa perkebunan terutama Hutan Tanaman Industri memilih penyiapan lahan dengan tanpa olah tanah (TOT) atau zero tillage. Karena tidak terusik maka struktur tanah di areal TOT tidak mengalami kerusakan. Namun tingginya potensi gangguan hama dan penyakit terutama rayap dan JAP merupakan permasalahan serius yang harus segera diantisipasi. Upaya peningkatan keberhasilan penerapan TOT harus dilakukan secara komprehensif mulai dari pra penanaman maupun pasca penanaman karet di lapangan.

 

 

ABSTRACT

Rubber agribusiness is still reliable by many plantation companies in Indonesia. As a part of land preparation, tillage is very important and becoming a standard procedure on rubber cultivation. Tillage by machinery through ripping, plowing and harrowing has been established since many years ago in commercial rubber plantation in Sumatra. The rubber price that fluctuates in the last five years has led to many companies skip the tillage when do replanting. Tillage in rubber cultivation has enormous benefits. The Bulk density of soil after tillage will decrease and soil becoming loose, therefore the penetration of rubber’s root will be easier. In addition to effective in time, tillage by machinery is also effective enough for terminating the white root disease inoculum. However tillage by machinery takes the negative impact as well. Tillage will accelerate the organic matter decomposition and in the long term it will decline soil organic matter. Decomposition will release CO2 gas which is harmful to the environment. The prohibition of burning on land preparation process and the highly cost of land preparation has caused the planters, especially in Industrial Plantation Forest (HTI) introduce zero tillage (TOT). Because it was not disturbed, the soil structure in the TOT system will be better. Otherwise the high potential of pest and disease disorders, i.e. termites and white root disease becoming the serious problem. The efforts to increase the success of TOT implementation have to be carried out comprehensively both in pre-planting and post-planting.


Keywords


Hevea brasiliensis, penyiapan lahan, pengolahan tanah, TOT /Hevea brasiliensis, land clearing, soil tillage, zero tillage (TOT)

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v17n2.2018.129-138

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