POTENSI JAMUR Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH.) SOROKIN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN SECARA HAYATI HAMA URET TEBU Lepidiota stigma (COLEOPTERA:SCARABAEIDAE)/Potency of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin for biocontrol of sugarcane white grub, Lepidiota stigma

I Gusti Agung Ayu Indrayani

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L) adalah komoditas penting di Indonesia yang beberapa tahun terakhir mengalami penurunan produktivitas, yang disebabkan oleh cara-cara budi daya yang tidak sesuai prosedur dan adanya serangan hama uret, Lepidiota stigma. Hama uret berkembang sangat cepat dan stadia yang paling merusak adalah instar 3. Serangan yang terjadi pada tanaman tebu muda mengakibatkan tanaman layu kemudian mati. Hama uret sulit dikendalikan karena sebagian besar hidupnya (stadia larva) ada di dalam tanah. Umumnya hama uret dikendalikan secara intensif dengan pestisida kimia yang diaplikasikan ke dalam tanah dan berpotensi mengakibatkan pencemaran, sehingga diperlukan alternatif pengendalian yang ramah lingkungan. Uret tebu dapat dikendalikan dengan musuh alami, yaitu jamur Metarhizium anisopliae. Jamur M. anisopliae efektif mengendalikan berbagai spesies serangga hama yang hidup di atas dan di bawah permukaan tanah. Satu isolat unggul jamur M. anisopliae (JTMa-2) telah diperoleh melalui isolasi sampel tanah dari pertanaman tebu di Jawa Timur. Setelah melalui pengujian di laboratorium dan rumah kasa selama dua tahun berturut-turut, terbukti bahwa isolat JTMa-2 sangat patogenik terhadap hama uret. Upaya pengembangan JTMa-2 menjadi biopestisida di masa depan memerlukan dukungan teknik perbanyakan massal yang mudah dan efisien, serta perlu disempurnakan dengan teknik formulasi yang tepat, sehingga dapat melindungi bahan aktif inokulum jamur dari pengaruh radiasi ultraviolet ketika diaplikasikan di lapangan. Untuk mengoptimalkan potensi jamur M. anisopliae dalam pengendalian uret diperlukan pula kajian mengenai sinergisme dengan cara-cara pengendalian yang lain, terutama penggunaan varietas tahan dan musuh alami (parasitoid dan predator).

 

Kata kunci: Tebu, uret, isolat, patogen serangga, inokulum

 

ABSTRACT

 

Sugarcane is an important crop in Indonesia, however its productivity is decrease currently due to insect pests mainly white grub, Lepidiota stigma.  The white grub is one of the pests limiting the production of sugarcane. The grub grows rapidly and the third instar is very destructive when feeding the root of the plant. The root damage can be very severe when grub feeding on younger plants of sugarcane that cause the plant die.  White grub is difficult to control because they live in soil. The control method of this grub is usually by using chemical pesticides applied into soil that harm the soil environment due to insecticides residues. Therefore, an alternative control method should be found.  Sugarcane white grub can be controlled biologically using their natural enemies, including entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae. The most pathogenic isolate of M. anisopliae (JTMa-2) has been isolated from soil collected in sugarcane plantation in East Java. Through laboratory and screen house studies this isolate showed highly pathogenic against L. stigma. Based on those studies, the most pathogenic isolate of M. anisopliae is promising to be a biological control agents against sugarcane white grub. To develop the most promising isolate to become a biopesticide, it can be massively produced easily using local materials for low cost and support by an appropriate formulation method in order to maintain its virulence against the insect host when applied in the field. To optimize the potential of this entomopathogenic fungi, its synergism with other control methods, especially resistant varieties of sugar cane and natural enemies, e.g. parasitoids or predators need to be studied.

 

Key words: Sugar cane, white grub, isolate, entomopathogen, inoculum


Keywords


Tebu, uret, isolat, patogen serangga, inokulum

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n1.2017.24-32

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