PENGANGKATAN AIR TANAH OLEH JAMBU METE DAN PROSPEK PEMANFAATANNYA / Hydraulic Lift on Cashew and Its Utilization Prospect

Joko Pitono

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Jambu mete dikembangkan secara luas di wilayah berlahan kering dan beriklim kering karena memiliki kemampuan adaptasi yang baik pada kondisi kekeringan, khususnya di wilayah timur Indonesia. Nilai ekonomi jambu mete utamanya diperoleh dari produk kacang mete, buah semu, dan CNSL dari cangkang biji mete. Namun praktek budidaya yang dilakukan masyarakat umumnya terbatas dalam pemberian input produksi khususnya pupuk yang menyebabkan penampilan produktivitas jambu mete di wilayah tersebut masih tergolong rendah. Agar pengembangan jambu mete tetap menarik, maka selain memberikan nilai ekonomi dari kacang mete dan produk ikutannya, diharapkan juga bisa memberikan nilai tambah untuk konservasi ekologi pada lahan kering. Sebagaimana hasil dari beberapa studi ekologi pada beberapa spesies tanaman hutan dan gurun tertentu yang terbukti dapat mengkonservasi lengas tanah di sekitar titik tumbuhnya. Kemampuan menyeimbangkan defisit lengas tanah yang hilang pada siang hari akibat evapotranspirasi yang tinggi, diketahui berasal dari proses hydraulic lift, yaitu proses jaringan akar yang mampu membasahi kembali partikel tanah di lapisan atas saat potensial air di jaringan akar tinggi dan laju transpirasi pada periode malam hari sangat rendah. Hasil dari beberapa studi terakhir menunjukkan bahwa tanaman jambu mete juga berindikasi memiliki kemampuan hydraulic lift, baik pada uji skala rumah kaca maupun skala lapangan. Tentunya, adanya kemampuan fungsi ekologis yang demikian memberikan nilai yang lebih strategis bagi tanaman jambu mete untuk mendukung pengembangan pertanian lebih lanjut di lahan kering beriklim kering. Tulisan ini mengulas perkembangan terkini hasil evaluasi fungsi ekologis pada tanaman jambu mete, terutama yang terkait dengan kemampuan hydraulic lift dan perspektif potensi pemanfaatannya bagi pengembangan pertanian lahan kering ke depan.

 

ABSTRACT

 Cashew is widely cultivated in dry land with dry climates, especially in eastern Indonesia, due to its good adaptability to drought conditions. The economic value of cashew nuts is primarily from kernel, apple fruits, and CNSL from nut shells. However, the cultivation practices commonly done by the farmers rarely apply input production, especially fertilizer, resulting in low cashew productivity in the region. Thus, to maintain cashew nut development, in addition to improving the economic value of cashew nuts and its products, is also expected to provide ecological conservation in the dry land.  Several studies on certain species of forest and desert plants indicated their ability to conserve moisture around the growing point. The ability to balance the soil moisture deficit lost during the day due to high evapotranspiration is identified as the result of the hydraulic lift process.  Hydraulic lift process occurs when the root tissue is capable to moisten the soil particles in the upper layer because the water potential in the root tissue is high while the transpiration rate at night is very low. Recent studies at greenhouse and field trial also indicated the capabilities of hydraulic lift on cashew.  This particular ecological function capability improves strategic value of cashew trees to support the further development of agriculture in dry land with dry climates. This paper reviewed the latest developments in the evaluation of ecological functions of cashew trees, especially related to its hydraulic lift capability and the perspectives of its potential utilization to develop agriculture in the dry land in the future.


Keywords


Kata kunci: Jambu mete, hydraulic lift, kekeringan, sharing air

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v16n1.2017.%25p

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