Penerapan Standar Mutu Tembakau di Indonesia

SAMSURI TIRTOSASTRO

Abstract


Untuk memperbaiki sistem perdagangan tembakau, pemerintah telah membuat standar mutu tembakau bersama pihak terkait, khususnya petani sebagai produsen dan industi rokok sebagai konsumen. Standar mutu yang disusun secara kesepakatan (voluntary) tersebut selanjutnya ditetapkan oleh Badan Standardisasi Nasional dalam bentuk Standardisasi Nasional Indonesia (SNI) dan diharapkan menjadi ketenruan yang mengikat (mandatory) dalam sisem perdagangan tembakau di Indonesia. Namun demikian usaha standardisasi tersebut belum berhasil baik dan perdagangan tembakau masih menggunakan cara lama, yaitu penentuan mutu dan harga secara subyekif oleh konsumen. Penyebab belum berhasilnya penerapan standar mutu tersebut karena standar mutu belum seluruhnya sesuai dengan selera konsumen dan juga maraknya pemalsuan mutu. Mutu tembakau hendaknya dibagi dalam kelas, tipe, grade, grup, warna dan mutu. Agar pembagian inci ini dapat terlaksana, komoditas tembakau harus distandardisasi cara penanaman, panen, pengolahan, sortasi, pembungkusan atau pengebalannya. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut diperlukan pembinaan petani tembakau dalam hal teknik budidaya dan pengolahan yang sesuai untuk menghasilkan mutu sesuai selera konsumen. Sistem pembinaan petani melalui kemitraan antara petani dan perusahaan tembakau sebagai pengelola merupakan langkah paling baik. Perusahaan hendaknya dapat merakit teknologi yang sesuai, mengantar kepada petani, mengawal teknologi tersebut dan menyediakan pasar serta membantu menyediakan sarana produksi dan mengusahakan pinjaman modal jika diperlukan.

Kata Kunci Tembakau, Nicotiana tabacum, standar mutu, unsur mutu, kemitraan petani perusahaan, peran pemerintah.

 

ABSTRACT

Application of standard tobacco quality in Indonesia

For improving the tobacco markeing system, the government has tried to introduce quality standard of tobacco commodities. The government made the tobacco qualiy standard together with all quarters that have the relation to tobacco commodity, especially farmers as tobacco producers and cigarette factoies as tobacco consumers. The quality standard that was set up by agreement (voluntary) further was determined by the Badan Standardisasi Nasional to become Indonesian Naional Standard (Standar Nasional Indonesia) format. This standard is expeced to become the hold regulaion (mandatory) for tobacco markeing sysem in Indonesia. Nevertheless, this standarizaion effort has not given good result yet. Unil now the tobacco markeing system sill use the old tradiional method, i.e. the quality and pice are set by the subjecivity of the consumers. The reasons why the tobacco quality standard applicaion has not a succeded yet, because the quality standard has not accommodaed all of the consumer expectaion, and the tobacco standard has not had the details of classificaion and there were also the large of the tobacco quality adulteraion. The tobacco quality is better to be classified as class, type, grade, group, colour and quality. In order that the details of classificaion can be caried out, the tobacco commodity should be standardized in its preparation since cultivaion, harvesing, curing, soring, and packaging. To reach this purpose, it needs guidance for farmers, especially technical-cultivation, harvesting, curing, grading, packaging and also marketing system. The objecive of the guidance was to produce tobacco quality suitable with the consumers needs. Collaboraion in in form of partnership between farmers and consumers is very important to me this program successfull. The consumers provide suitable technology, give the technology to the farmers, escorting the technology in its applicaion, credit investment and prepare the tobacco market.

Key Words : Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, quality standard, quality factor, partnership collaboraion, government role


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/p.v3n1.2004.24-34

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