Perakitan Kelapa Hibrida Intervarietas dan Pengembangannya di Indonesia

ELSJE T. TENDA

Abstract


Perakitan kelapa hibrida intervarietas oleh para pemulia kelapa di Indonesia ditujukan untuk mendapatkan berbagai jenis kelapa yang cepat berbuah, produksi tinggi, medium input, tahan hama dan penyakit tertentu, spesifik lokasi, dan sesuai kebutuhan konsumen. Beberapa jenis kelapa hibrida potensial yang telah dihasilkan oleh Balitka adalah Kelapa Hibrida Dalam x Dalam yaitu: KB-1, 2, 3, dan 4 serta Kelapa Hibrida Genjah x Dalam yaitu: KHINA-1, 2, dan 3 yang telah dilepas oleh Menteri Pertanian tahun 1984. Di samping itu beberapa jenis Kelapa Hibrida Genjah x Dalam yang telah diuji yaitu: kelapa hibrida yang sesuai lahan kering iklim basah GRA x DMT, GKB x DMT, GKN x DTE, dan GKB x DTE, produksi sekitar 3 ton kopra/ha/tahun dengan medium input, kelapa hibrida toleran pasang surut yaitu GSK x DRU, GTT x DRU, dan GKN x DRU. Kelapa hibrida resisten terhadap penyakit busuk pucuk dan gugur buah sebanyak 25 jenis. Penyebaran Kelapa Hibrida PB-121 dan NIWA telah mencapai kurang lebih 244.000 ha, tapi produksinya tidak optimal. Permasalahan ditemui dalam pengembangan kelapa hibrida tersebut antara lain: membutuhkan input tinggi, peka terhadap penyakit busuk pucuk dan gugur buah, ukuran buah kecil sehingga tidak disukai konsumen terutama pabrikan. Ke depan pengembangan Kelapa Hibrida Genjah x Dalam masih diperlukan untuk mempercepat peningkatan produktivitas kelapa. Konsep yang ditawarkan adalah menggunakan kelapa hibrida lokal yang cepat berbuah dan produksi tinggi, medium input, ukuran buah sedang sampai besar, resisten terhadap penyakit busuk pucuk dan gugur buah, serta spesifik lokasi.

Kata kunci : Kelapa, Cocos nucifera L., kelapa hibrida, pengembangan.

 

ABSTRACT

The Coconut Hybrid from Intervarieties Hybridization and its Development in Indonesia

The objective of coconut intervarities hybridization in Indonesia is to find out some coconut accessions which are early bearing, high production, medium input, resistant to pest and diseases, spesific location , and suitable with consumer needs. Some of potential coconut hybrids produced by ICOPRI, such as Tall x Tall hybrids namely KB-1,2,3,4 and coconut hybrid Dwarf x Tall namely KHINA 1, 2, and 3 were released by the Minister of Agriculture in 1984. Moreover, some of Dwarf x Tall hybrids which were suitable for dry area and wet climate had been tested, there were GRA x DMT, GKB X DMT, GKN x DTE, and GKB X DTE. The production of those hybrids were approximately 3 tonnes copra/hectar/year with medium input. Coconut hybrids wich were tolerant to swampy area were GSK x DRU, GTT x DRU, and GKN X DRU, and there were also 25 coconut hybrids which were resistant to bud rot and nut fall diseases. PB-121 and NIWA hybrids were planted around 244,000 hectars, but the productions were not optimal. The problems faced in the field were that these hybrids need high input, sensitive to bud rot and nut fall diseases, and nut size was small so that it was not accepted by the consumers especially coconut factories. In the future, the development of coconut hybrid Dwarf x Tall is still needed to accelerate increasing of coconut productivity. The consept proposed for the development is using local coconut hybrids wich have characteristics early bearing, high production, medium input, medium to big size of nuts, resistant to bud rot and nut fall diseases and spesific location.

Key words : Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., coconut hybrid, development


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/p.v3n2.2004.35-45

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