Prospek Pengembangan Agroforestri Berbasis Kopi di Indonesia

HANDI SUPRIADI, DIBYO PRANOWO

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Keterbatasan lahan pertanian mendorong masyarakat/ petani membuka lahan baru di kawasan hutan, dengan cara menebang dan membongkar tanaman hutan serta membakar sisa-sisa tanaman dan semak belukar, akibatnya lahan menjadi kritis. Salah satu upaya untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah melalui penerapan sistem agroforestri berbasis kopi. Agroforestri berbasis kopi yang sudah dikembangkan petani berperan dalam : (1) Konservasi lahan, air dan keanekaragaman hayati, (2) Penambahan unsur hara lahan, (3) Pengendalian iklim mikro, (4) Penambahan cadangan karbon (5) Menekan serangan hama dan penyakit dan (6) Peningkatan pendapatan petani. Agroforestri berbasis kopi telah dipraktekkan oleh petani pada berbagai wilayah di Indonesia, diantaranya di Lampung Barat (pola hutan kemasyarakatan dan hutan desa), Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah (pola pengelolaan hutan bersama masyarakat). Tantangan/masalah yang dijumpai pada agroforestri berbasis kopi diantaranya (1) Tingkat pengetahun petani tentang budidaya agroforestri berbasis kopi yang masih rendah, (2) Terbatasnya modal usaha dan (3) Ketidakpastian status lahan usaha. Upaya untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut dapat dilalukan melalui pelatihan dan pendampingan teknologi budidaya, bantuan modal usaha dan kepastian hukum status lahan. Pengembangan agroforesti berbasis kopi diarahkan pada dikawasan hutan milik Perum Perhutani, hutan kemasyarakan (HKm) dan hutan desa (HD) yang luasnya masing-masing 2.250.172; 2.500.000 dan 500.000 ha. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi peran agroforestri berbasis kopi terhadap lingkungan, dan ekonomi petani serta prospek pengembangannya di Indonesia.
Kata kunci: Tanaman kopi, agroforestri, tanaman penaung, lingkungan, pendapatan, pengembangan

ABSTRACT
Prospects of Agroforestry Development Based on Coffee in Indonesia

Limitations of agricultural land to encourage people/ farmers open up new land in forest areas, by felling tree forests and forcing open plants and burning the remains of plants and shrubs as a result of land being serious critical. One effort to over come the problem is through the implementation of a coffee-based agroforestry systems. Role-based on agroforestry coffee farmers that have been developed, by farmers involve on (1) Conserve land, water and biodiversity, (2) Add of nutrients lands, (3) Control of microclimate, (4) Add of carbon stocks (5) Suppress pests and diseases, and (6) Enhancement to the income of farmers. Coffee-based agroforestry has been practiced by farmers in various regions in Indonesia, including in West Lampung (patterns of community forestry and forest villages), West Java and Central Java (forest management with communities). Challenge/problems encountered in the coffee-based agroforestry include (1) The level of knowledge of farmers on the cultivation of coffee-based agroforestry still low, (2) Lack of venture capital and (3) The uncertainty of the status of business land. Efforts to overcome these problems can through training and mentoring cultivation technology, venture capital assistance and legal certainty of land status. Development direction of coffee-based agroforestry can be done conduct of region-owned Perum Perhutani, community forestry (CF) and village forest (VF) which covers each 2.250.172; 2.500.000 and 500.000 ha. This paper aims to identify the role of coffee-based agroforestry on the environment, and the economy of farmers and development prospect in Indonesia.
Keywords: Coffee sp., agroforestry, shade plants, environment, income, development


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/p.v14n2.2015.135-150

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