URET PADA TANAMAN TEBU DAN PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI PENGENDALIANNYA DALAM MENDUKUNG PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

. Siswanto, . Sumanto, Deciyanto Soetopo

Abstract


Abstrak

Uret atau lundi merupakan hama endemis di berbagai wilayah tebu di Indonesia, terutama pada lahan kering dengan kandungan tanah dominan berpasir. Akibat serangan uret pada pertanaman tebu sering menyebabkan kehilangan  hasil gula cukup besar, yakni mampu menurunkan hasil gula hingga 50 % per ha. Di Indonesia tercatat ada 30 spesies uret, dan empat genera di antaranya berpotensi sebagai hama tebu yaitu Lepidiota, Leucopholis, Phyllophaga dan Apogonia, dan spesies Lepidiota stigma paling dominan di berbagai wilayah pengembangan tebu yang menghadapi masalah uret. Hampir semua Negara produsen gula tebu mengalami kendala serangan uret dalam usahatani tebunya, tetapi genus dan spesies uret yang menyerang umumnya berbeda di setiap Negara.  Strategi pengendalian uret di berbagai negara, sebagaimana halnya pengendalian hama dan penyakit saat ini lebih mengarah pada keamanan lingkungan dan kesehatan, yakni mengusahakan seminim mungkin penggunaan insektisida kimiawi sintetis dengan memadukan berbagai teknik pengendalian yang efisien, efektif dan kompatibel. Karena itu berbagai kegiatan penelitian dan pengendalian uret difokuskan pada pengembangan varietas toleran, pemanfaatan musuh alami, tindakan kultur teknis, serta cara mekanis dan fisik, yang kompatibel satu sama lain melalui konsep Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT).   Hasil penelitian penting terkait, antara lain:(1) Klon tebu toleran serangan uret di Indonesia PS862 dan Kenthung (khususnya L. stigma:), di Philipina klon CP29116,  di Thailand, varieties Uthong 3 dan K 88-92, (2) Entomophatogen serangga potensial pengendali uret: jamur Metharizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, nematode Steinernema sp. Implementasi strategi pengendalian uret ramah lingkungan mendukung program pertanian berkelanjutan akan efektif bila diselaraskan dengan karakter biologi hama, sarana prasarana pengembangan perbenihan dan pengendali hayati, cukup memadainya pemahaman tentang pengendalian hama terpadu baik petani maupun para pengambil kebijakan terkait usaha tani tebu.

Kata Kunci : Tebu, uret, pengendalian, pertanian berkelanjutan

Abstract

          White grubs are endemic pest in sugarcane plantation of Indonesia, mainly on the sandy loam dry land.  The pest attack would cause up to 50%  loss of yield  in a ha.  In Indonesia there are 30 species of grubs related to sugarcane plantation, while four of them dominantly are Lepidiota, Leucopholis, Phyllophaga dan Apogonia, but the species of Lepidiota stigma is the most dominant in the plantation which usually have severe  problem on grubs infestation. Most of sugarcane producing countries are undergone the grubs problem in their plantation though in different genus or species. In the decade, the grubs control to be developed in some countries are directing to friendly environment strategy supporting sustainable agricultural development, by minimizing the use of chemical insecticides.  Therefore research and development for the grubs control in Indonesia are also focusing on these strategy such as the development of tolerant varieties/klones,the use of natural enemies, cultivation methods, as well as mechanize and physical control methodes. Research results showed (1) PS862 and Kenthung klones are tolerant to L. stigma, (2) Entomophatogenic agents such as Metharizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, Steinernema sp. To implement the strategy of friendly environment control supporting sustainable agricultural program would be effective by understanding the biological character of grubs, development infrastructure for superior seeds and biological control agents, empowering farmer and policy makers concerning  sugarcane plantation.

Keyword: Sugarcane, whitegrubs, control strategy, sustainable agriculture

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v15n2.2016.110-123

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