Prospek Pengolahan Hasil Samping Buah Kelapa

ZAINAL MAHMUD, YULIUS FERRY

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Daging buah adalah komponen utama dari buah kelapa; sedangkan sabut, tempurung, dan air buah merupakan  hasil samping (by-product). Dengan produksi buah kelapa di Indonesia rata-rata 15,5 milyar butir/tahun, total bahan ikutan yang dapat diperoleh 3,75 juta ton air, 0,75 juta ton arang tempurung, 1,8 juta ton serat sabut, dan 3,3 juta ton debu sabut sebagai hasil samping. Kelayakan usaha pengolahan hasil samping  buah kelapa sangat menjanjikan bila direncanakan dan dikelola dengan baik. Berdasarkan analisis finansial tahun 2004, B/C dan IRR pengolahan sabut menjadi serat dan debu sabut selama 10 tahun adalah 3,58 dan 76%; tempurung menjadi arang selama 5 tahun 1,11 dan 23%; dan air kelapa menjadi nata de coco selama 5 tahun 1,32 dan 32%. Pengembangan industri pengolahan hasil samping harus ditunjang oleh kelayakan teknis terutama ketersediaan pasokan bahan baku dan pemasaran, serta alat pengolahan yang sesuai untuk pengolahan sabut. Untuk mendapatkan bahan baku yang cukup bagi pengolahan sabut diperlukan areal kelapa seluas 300 ha. Pengolahan sabut ini harus dipadukan dengan pengolahan debu sabut menjadi kompos sehingga diperoleh pendapatan tambahan. Untuk memproduksi 1 ton serat sabut diperoleh sekitar 5 ton debu sabut. Lokasi pengolahan hasil samping sebaiknya di sekitar sumber bahan baku dan untuk menjamin kontinuitas pengadaan dan pemasaran produk disarankan usaha-usaha tersebut dalam bentuk usaha bersama.

Kata kunci: Kelapa, Cocos nucifera L., pengolahan, hasil samping

 

ABSTRACT

Prospect of Coconut By-Product Processing

Coconut meat is the main component of coconut, while the coconut husk, shell, and water are considered as by-product. With the coconut production in Indonesia at average of 15.5 billion coconuts per year, the total by-product is accumulated to 3.75 million tons coconut water, 0.75 million tons shell charcoal, 1.8 million tons coconut fiber, and 3.3 million tons coir dust. Business in coconut by-product processing is condidered to be prospective as long as it is planned and managed properly. Based on the financial analysis in 2004, the B/C and IRR of coconut husk processing into coconut fiber and coir dust for 10 years were 3.58 and 76%, coconut shell into shell charcoal for 5 years was 1.11  and 23%; and coconut water into nata de coco for 5 years was 1.32 and 32%. The industry of coconut by-product processing should be supported by technical feasibilty, mainly the raw material availability, market, and appropriate coconut husk machinery. To provide sufficient raw material for coconut husk processing, it needs about 300 ha of coconut plantation. Furthermore, to abtain additional farmer’s income the coconut husk processing should be integrated with coir dust processing into compost, so that it can earn additional income. To produce one ton  of coconut fiber will produce  5  tons  of  coir dust.  It  suggested  that  the location of coconut by-product processing is better closed to the raw material source, and to secure the continuity of rawmaterial supply and product marketing the business should be run in the form of cooperation.

Key words: Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., processing, by product

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/p.v4n2.2005.%25p

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