Potensi Sektor Pertanian Sebagai Penghasil dan Pengguna Energi Terbarukan

BAMBANG PRASTOWO

Abstract


RINGKASAN

Perkembangan kebutuhan energi dunia yang dinamis di tengah semakin terbatasnya cadangan energi fosil serta kepedulian terhadap kelestarian lingkungan hidup, menyebabkan perhatian terhadap energi terbarukan semakin meningkat, terutama pada sumber-sumber energi terbarukan di sektor pertanian seperti komoditi tanaman pangan, hortikultura, perkebunan dan peternakan. Secara lebih sempit lagi, diungkapkan komoditas-komoditas utamanya,  yaitu padi, jagung, ubikayu, kelapa, kelapa sawit, tebu, jarak pagar, sagu serta ternak besar (sapi/kotoran  sapi). Potensi bioenergi asal residu biomassa tanaman dari sektor  pertanian (tanpa  industri  kayu  kehutanan, jagung) adalah sekitar 441,1 juta GJ. Pada kondisi sama pada tahun 2000 diperhitungan sekitar 430 juta GJ, atau  sekitar 470 juta  GJ jika residu industri kayu dimasukkan.  Jika  diperhitungkan  tersedianya  bio-energi dari hasil pokok komoditas pertanian (nira, gula, minyaknya dll), maka diperkirakan Indonesia dapat menyediakan bioenergi secara potensial sejumlah 360,99 juta GJ, sehingga jumlah totalnya sekitar 802,09 juta GJ. Sebagai perbandingan,  nilai tersebut kira-kira setara dengan pengoperasian terus menerus lebih dari 25 ribu unit pembangkit listrik tenaga energi terbarukan skala menengah ukuran 10 MW yang saat ini sedang dikampanyekan. Sektor pertanian selain sebagai penghasil energi terbarukan sekaligus merupakan pengguna potensial. Perhitungan keseimbangan antara produksi dan penggunaan energi terbarukan di sektor pertanian,  perlu dikaji secara terus menerus, seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi di bidang energi dan pertanian. Evaluasi ini akan  bermanfaat  untuk  menilai efisiensi kegiatan agribisnis di Indonesia dari segi peningkatan produktivitas pertanian nasional dan pelestarian lingkungan melalui energi terbarukan.

Kata kunci: Pertanian, potensi, energi terbarukan, bio-energi.

 

ABSTRACT

Potency of Agrriculture Sector as the Producer and the User of Renewble Energy

Development of a dynamic world energy consumption within the limitation of fossil energy reserve as well as the  awareness  on  the  environmental  conservation evoke the increase of interest on a renewable energy, especially   a   renewable   energy   resources   from agriculture sector such as food crops, horticulture, estate commodities and animal husbandry. To be more specific,  the  main  commodities  are  paddy,  maize, cassava, coconut, palm oil, sugarcane, Jatropha curcas, sago, and large livestock (Cow/Cow  waste). The potency of bio-energy derived from plant biomass residue of agriculture sector (without wood industry, maize) is around 441.1 GJ.  At the same condition, in 2000, it is estimated roughly 430 million GJ or just about 470 million GJ if the residue of wood industry is included.  Estimated that if the availability of bio-energy derived from the main production of agriculture commodity is calculated, so that Indonesia could  provide  bio-energy  potentially  amounted  to 360.99 million GJ, therefore, the total amount would be around 802.09 million GJ. In contrast, the value is approximately equal to the continuous operating of more than 25 thousand units of electric power of renewable energy power for middle scale of 10 MW which is now being campaign. Agriculture sector is not only plays the role as the producer of a renewable energy, but also forms as a potential user. Alongside technology development of energy and agriculture sectors, the equivalent estimation between the production and the usage of renewable energy in agricultural sector need to be studied continuously. This evaluation is useful to analyze the efficiency of agribusiness activities in Indonesia based on the improvement of national agriculture productivity and environmental conservation through renewable energy.

Key words: Agriculture, potency, renewable energy, bioenergy

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/p.v6n2.2007.%25p

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