PELUANG PALM FATTY ACID DISTILLATE DARI INDUSTRI MINYAK SAWIT DALAM PEMBUATAN MONO-DIGLISERIDA The Opportunities of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate from Palm Oil Industry in Production of Mono-Diglyceride

Kartika Okta Purnama, Dwi Setyaningsing, Erliza Hambali, Darmono Taniwiryono

Abstract


Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) merupakan produk samping bernilai rendah yang dihasilkan dari proses deodorisasi pada tahapan refinery crude palm oil (CPO) menjadi minyak goreng sawit. Kandungan PFAD yaitu asam lemak bebas (ALB) sebagai komponen utama (>80 %) dan komponen minor berupa karoten (pro-vitamin A), tokoferol dan tokotrienol (vitamin E), sterol, fosfolipid, glikoloid, serta hidrokarbon terpenik dan alifatik. Potensi PFAD dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku berbagai produk dalam upaya peningkatan nilai tambah industri minyak sawit, seperti sebagai bahan baku dalam sintesis mono-digliserida (MDAG). Produk MDAG merupakan emulsifier yang telah banyak digunakan sebagai pengemulsi dalam industri pangan dan bukan pangan. Emulsifier berfungsi menyatukan dua fase cairan yang berbeda kepolaran sehingga membentuk suatu sistem emulsi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh karena bahan tersebut memiliki sifat hidrofilik dan hidrofobik di dalam senyawanya. Sintesis MDAG dari PFAD dapat dilakukan melalui esterifikasi enzimatis dan kimiawi dengan bantuan katalis. Sintesis MDAG dari PFAD merupakan reaksi yang bersifat reversible, sehingga konversi reaktan menjadi produk dalam jumlah tinggi sulit untuk diperoleh. Spesifikasi kemurnian MDAG tentang aditif makanan standar Uni Eropa (UE) tahun 2012. Adapun tantangan dalam produksi MDAG dari PFAD adalah rendemen dan spesifikasi produk MDAG yang dihasilkan relatif rendah, sehingga diperlukan berbagai upaya dalam peningkatan rendemen dan spesifikasi produk MDAG hasil sintesis. Makalah ini mereview tentang proses pengolahan dan karakterisik PFAD serta aplikasinya dalam sintesis MDAG dan berbagai upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan rendemen dan spesifikasi serta aplikasi MDAG pada berbagai produk untuk dapat diteliti lebih lanjut. Sintesis MDAG secara kimiawi  dilanjutkan dengan pemurnian produk hasil esterifikasi menggunakan metode distilasi molekuler berpeluang untuk dilakukan sebagai upaya dalam meningkatkan rendemen dan spesifikasi produk MDAG sesuai standar.

ABSTRACT

 

Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a low-value by-product produced from the deodorization process at the refinery crude palm oil (CPO) stage to become palm cooking oil. PFAD contains free fatty acids (ALB) as the primary (> 80%) and minor components in the form of carotene (pro-vitamin A), tocopherols, and tocotrienols (vitamin E), sterols, phospholipids, glycoloid, as well as terpenic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. PFAD can  to be used as a raw material for various products to increase the added value of the palm oil industry, such as a raw material in the synthesis of mono-diacylglyceride (MDAG). MDAG is an emulsifier that has been widely used as an emulsifier in the food and non-food industries. An emulsifier is a material that can unite two liquid phases with different polarities to form an emulsion system. This is because the material has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties as well as in its compounds. The synthesis of MDAG from PFAD can be carried out through enzymatic and chemical esterification with the help of a catalyst. The synthesis of MDAG from PFAD is a reversible reaction, so the conversion of reactants into products in high amounts is difficult to obtain. MDAG product purity specifications are following on European Union (EU) standard food additives in 2012. The challenge in MDAG production from PFAD is that the output and specifications of MDAG products are still relatively low so that various efforts are needed to increase the yield and specifications of synthesized MDAG products. This paper reviews the processing and characteristics of PFAD and its application in the synthesis of MDAG and the various efforts that can be made to improve the yield and specifications and the application of MDAG to multiple products for further research. Chemical synthesis of MDAG with a continuous process followed by purification of esterified products using the molecular distillation method has the opportunity to be done as an effort to increase the yield and specifications of MDAG products according to standards.


Keywords


karakterisasi, mono-digliserida, palm fatty acid distillate, rendemen / characteristic, mono-diglyceride, palm fatty acid distillate, yield

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