KERUSAKAN TANAH PADA LAHAN PERKEBUNAN DAN STRATEGI PENCEGAHAN SERTA PENANGGULANGANNYA / Soil Deterioration of Plantation Land and Strategies for Its Prevention and Handling

Bariot Hafif

Abstract


Tanah areal perkebunan Indonesia seluas 26,5 juta ha yang terdiri atas tanah mineral dan tanah gambut, rentan mengalami kerusakan. Penyebabnya antara lain pengelolaan tanah berlebihan, penggunaan tidak sesuai dengan kelas kesesuaian lahan, dan pengembalian hara tidak berimbang. Kerusakan tanah juga didorong oleh sifat alam seperti curah hujan tinggi, topografi berlereng dan erodibilitas tanah tinggi. Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah membahas berbagai indikator kerusakan tanah pada lahan perkebunandan strategi pencegahan serta penanggulangannya. Indikator penilaian kerusakan sifat fisika, kimia dan biologi tanah mineral yang relatif baru adalah sealing/crusting (lapisan tanah tipis kedap air), pemadatan tanah, kandungan logam berat dan residu pestisida, dan kandungan mikroba.Sedangkan pada tanah gambut seperti perubahan simpanan karbon, tingkat respirasi, emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK), tingkat kematangan gambut, perubahan tinggi muka air, subsidensi dan kontaminasi polutan. Untuk menghindari kerusakan tanah pada lahan perkebunan, cara preventif dinilai lebih baik. Cara ini di antaranya dapat digapai dengan memaksimalkan penutupan permukaan tanah oleh kanopi. Untuk hal itu pertumbuhan tanaman harus optimal dengan menyediakan hara, air dan bahan organik yang cukup, dan memelihara stabilitas agregat dan ruang pori tanah. Cara lain adalah menerapkan pola agroforestri dan teknologi konservasi. Untuk menghindari tanah gambut dari kerusakan maka pemilihan komoditas perkebunan harus selektif di antaranya tanaman harus berkontribusi nyata dalam sekuestrasi karbon gambut, pola tataguna lahan sesuai dengan hasil penilaian kesesuaian lahan gambut, lahan merupakan kawasan budidaya, ketebalan gambut tidak >3 (tiga) meter, tanah gambut bukan kategori fibrik, dan tanah mineral di bawah gambut bukan pasir kuarsa dan tanah sulfat masam.

 

ABSTRACT

Indonesia's plantation area of 26.5 million ha, consisting of mineral soils and peat soils, is vulnerable to damage. The causes include excessive soil management, land use is improper to land suitability, and imbalanced nutrient returns. Soil deterioration is also driven by natural characteristics such as rainfall, topography, and soil erodibility. The purpose of this article is to discussvarious indikators of soil deterioration on plantation land and strategies for their prevention and control. Indicators in the assessment of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics deterioration of mineral soils are relatively new, are sealing/crusting, soil compaction, the content of heavy metals, pesticide residues, and microbes. While in peat soils are deposits carbon, respiration rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, peat maturity, water table level, peat subsidence and pollutant contamination. Preventive measures are better to avoid damage to plantation soil. This method can be achieved, among others, by maximizing the cover of the soil surface by the canopy. For this, plant growth must be optimal by providing sufficient nutrients, water, and organic matter and maintaining the aggregates stability, and soil pore space. Another way is to apply agroforestri patterns and conservation technologies. Toprevent peat soil from being damaged, plantation commodities selected should contribute significantly to the carbon sequestration of peatand land-use patterns based on peatland suitability assessment, besides the peat soils are in cultivation areas, peat soil thickness is<3 (three) meters, the peat is not fibric and under the peat is not quartz sands and acid sulphate soils.


Keywords


kerusakan tanah, tanah mineral, tanah gambut, lahan perkebunan / soil deterioration, mineral soil, peat soil, plantation land

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v19n2.2020.105-121

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