STATUS DAN STRATEGI TEKNOLOGI PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT UTAMA TEBU DI INDONESIA Status and Control Strategy of Important Sugarcane Diseases In Indonesia

Titiek Yulianti

Abstract


Sejak tebu dibudidayakan untuk menghasilkan gula di Indonesia pada tahun 1650, tercatat lebih dari 30 jenis penyakit yang pernah ditemukan.  Namun, hanya beberapa jenis penyakit yang  berpotensi menurunkan produktivitas tebu dan mutu nira bahkan kerugiannya bisa mencapai 20%.  Jenis penyakit tersebut antara lain adalah: penyakit sereh yang disebabkan oleh Phytoplasma, pokkah boeng yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium moniliformae, blendok oleh bakteri Xanthomonas albineans, luka api oleh jamur Sporisorium scitamineum, pembuluh oleh bakteri Leifsonia xyli  sub sp  xyli, lapuk akar dan pangkal batang oleh jamur Xylaria warbugii, mosaik dan mosaik bergaris oleh virus.  Dominasi penyakit-penyakit tersebut berbeda dari waktu ke waktu akibat perubahan sistem tanam, perubahan ekosistem lahan sawah ke lahan tegal dan tadah hujan yang lebih kering, pergantian jenis varietas yang ditanam, serta akibat terjadinya perubahan iklim. Sampai saat ini pengendalian penyakit tebu yang paling efektif adalah penanaman varietas tahan, penggunaan benih yang sehat bebas patogen dan karantina. Saat ini penyakit luka api dan mosaik bergaris merupakan penyakit yang belum bisa diatasi dan cenderung meningkat kejadian dan penyebarannya.  Tulisan ini mengulas perkembangan dan hasil penelitian pengendalian penyakit yang pernah menjadi masalah penting pada periode waktu tertentu karena menurunkan produksi tebu secara nyata sejak tebu dibudidayakan secara komersial di Indonesia serta strategi pengendalian yang harus dilakukan secara terpadu demi kelangsungan perkebunan tebu dalam mendukung industri gula nasional.

ABTRACT 

There were more than 30 diseases have been recorded since sugarcane grown for sugar in Indonesia.  And yet, only few diseases considered as major diaseases since they decreased productivity up to 20% and sugar content significantly.  They were: sereh caused by Phytoplasm, pokkah boeng caused by Fusarium moniliformae, leafscald caused by Xanthomonas albineans, smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, ratoon stunting caused by Leifsonia xyli  sub sp  xyli, root and basal stem rot by Xylaria warbugii, mosaic, and streak mosaic caused by virus.  Domination of the diseases was different from time to time due to the change of cropping sytem, change of ecosystem from wetland (sawah) to drier rainfed area, shift of varieties, and also the occurence of climate change.  The most effective controls of sugarcane disease were the use of resistant varieties, healthy seed, and quarantine.  At the moment smut and streak mosaic have not effectively controlled and tend to increase their occurrence and distribution.  the This paper reviews the development of important diseases which have significantly reduced sugarcane production since sugarcane commercially cultivated in Indonesia and integrated disease control strategies to support the sustainability of sugarcane industry.


Keywords


penyakit tebu, periode, varietas, karantina / sugarcane disease, period, variety, quarantine

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v19n1.2020.01-16

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