KAKAO FERMENTASI : PELEPASAN PEPTIDA BIOAKTIF DAN MANFAATNYA BAGI KESEHATAN Fermented Cocoa: The Release of Bioactive Peptides and Their Health Benefits

Winda Haliza, Endang Yuli Purwani, Dedi Fardiaz, Maggy Thenawidjaja Suhartono

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Proses fermentasi diperlukan untuk mendapatkan biji kakao berkualitasi tinggi. Fermentasi biji kakao melibatkan beragam mikrobia dan enzim endogen yang mampu merombak komponen di dalamnya menjadi prekursor citarasa dan aroma bahkan komponen bioaktif.  Protein termasuk salah satu komponen yang mengalami perombakan yang memicu pelepasan bioaktif peptida. Proses proteolitik selama fermentasi kakao menyediakan asam amino dan peptida yang melimpah dimana lebih dari 800 peptida dapat diidentifikasi secara jelas. Peptida tersebut memiliki manfaat kesehatan karena mampu berfungsi  sebagai antioksidan, antihipertensi, antitumor dan sebagainya.  Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa biji kakao terfermentasi memiliki keunggulan sebagai sumber bioaktif peptida. Ketentuan fermentasi biji kakao di Indonesia secara jelas telah diatur oleh Peraturan Menteri Pertanian Republik Indonesia No.67/Permentan/Ot.140/5/2014 tentang Persyaratan Mutu dan Pemasaran Biji Kakao. Fermentasi spontan biji kakao bersifat unik dan berkaitan erat dengan keragamanan jenis mikroba  dan enzim serta metabolit yang dihasilkannya. Pemahaman yang baik terhadap fermentasi spontan telah mendorong dikembang-kannya beragam teknologi fermentasi biji kakao yang sifatnya terkendali untuk menghasilkan produk dengan standar tertentu yang dikehendaki. Selanjutnya, proses fermentasi seharusnya menjadi strategi dalam meningkatkan daya saing biji kakao.

 

 

ABSTRACT

The fermentation process is needed to get high-quality cocoa beans. Fermentation of cocoa beans involves a variety of microbes and endogenous enzymes that are able to remodel the components inside to become the precursors for flavor and aroma and even bioactive components. Protein is one component that has undergoes a change that triggers the release of bioactive peptides. Proteolytic processes during cocoa fermentation provide abundant amino acids and peptides from which more than 800 peptides can be clearly identified. The peptide has health benefits because it is able to function as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor and so on. This indicates that fermented cocoa beans have the advantage of being a source of bioactive peptides. The provisions on the fermentation of cocoa beans in Indonesia have clearly been regulated by Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia No.67/Permentan/Ot.140/5/2014 concerning Quality and Marketing Requirements for Cocoa Beans. Spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans is unique and is closely related to the variety of microbial types and the enzymes and metabolites that they produce. A good understanding of spontaneous fermentation has led to the development of a variety of cocoa bean fermentation technologies that are controlled to produce products with certain desired standards. Furthermore, the fermentation process should become a strategy to improve the competitiveness of cocoa beans.

 


Keywords


biji kakao, fermentasi, proteolisis, peptida bioaktif /cocoa beans, fermentation, proteolysis, bioactive peptide

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v18n2.2019.104-119

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