PERKEMBANGAN PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT VASCULAR STREAK DIEBACK PADA TANAMAN KAKAO / Current Research Progress and Strategy to Control Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) Disease of Cacao

Rita Harni, Dono Wahyuno, Iwa Mara Trisawa

Abstract


Vascular streak dieback (VSD) merupakan penyakit penting pada tanaman kakao. Penyakit ini telah berkembang luas di sentra produksi kakao di Indonesia dan menyebabkan kerugian 30-45% dari produksi. Luas serangan VSD di Indonesia pada tahun 2007 adalah 70.000 ha dengan kehilangan hasil sebesar  Rp 405 643 680 000/tahun, dan kerugian terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun. Tujuan dari revieu ini adalah menginformasikan tentang penyakit VSD dan perkembangan teknologi pengendaliannya. Penyakit VSD adalah penyakit pembuluh kayu yang  menyerang tanaman kakao. Gejala serangan ditunjukkan oleh daun yang  mengalami klorosis, gugur dan meranting, hingga akhirnya tanaman tidak berproduksi. Penyakit VSD disebabkan oleh cendawan Ceratobasidium theobromae, yang bersifat obligat parasit, tersebar melalui spora udara (basidiospora), melalui bahan tanam atau bibit kakao yang telah terinfeksi. Keberhasilan spora untuk berkecambah dan melakukan penetrasi jaringan daun sangat tergantung pada kondisi lingkungan. Karakteristik C theobromae yang sulit diperbanyak pada medium buatan menjadikan penelitian VSD sangat tergantung dengan kondisi inokulum di lapang. Komponen pengendalian yang telah dikembangkan berupa varietas atau klon kakao tahan VSD, aplikasi fungisida, agens hayati dan kultur teknis.    Pengembangan kakao tahan VSD perlu disertai dengan pengembangan komponen teknologi pengendalian lainnya. Penanaman klon tahan VSD disertai dengan penerapan kultur teknis budidaya kakao yang tepat  disertai aplikasi komponen pengendalian yang sesuai dianggap sebagai strategi untuk menekan penyebaran VSD yang efisien, efektif dan ramah lingkungan. .

 

 

ABSTRACT

Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) is a main disease in cacao. It has been widely spread in cacao producing centers in Indonesia which has caused 30-40% production loss. Infested plant showed symptoms such as clorosis on its leaves which then fall off and die back. eventually stop producing.  VSD is caused by a obligate parasite fungus Ceratobasidium theobromae ,  , spread through basidiospora, plant materials, or infected seedlings. Since this fungus is difficult to be cultured in artificial media causes the research on VSD highly depends on the availability of inoculum at the field   The ability of spora to germinate and penetrate leaves tissue is determined by environment conditions.  Components of control which have been developed are varieties or cacao clones, fungicide application, biocontrol agents, and technical culture.  Developing VSD resistant cacao also necessitates the development of control technology components. Planting VSD resistant clones combines with sugested cultural practices are considered efficient and effective for controlling VSD as well as an environmental friendly control strategy.

 


Keywords


Ceratobasidium theobromae, kakao, pengendalian, VSD, / Ceratobasidium theobromae, cacao, management, VSD

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agro Farm. (2018). ICCO: Indonesia Bakal Disalip Equador Sebagai Produsen Kakao Ketiga Dunia. www.agrofarm.co.id/2018/02/4852-2/ [7 November 2018].

Aini, F.N. (2014). Pengendalian penyakit pembuluh kayu (Vascular Streak Dieback) pada tanaman kakao menggunakan fungisida flutriafol. Pelita Perkebunan 30(3): 229-239.

Amin, N., Salam, M., Junaid, M., Asman & Baco, M.S. (2014). Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi from cocoa plant resistante VSD M.05 and cocoa plant Susceptible VSD M.01 in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 3(2): 459-467.

Anderson, R. D. (1989). Avocado, an alternate host for Oncobasidium theobromae. In Australasian Plant Pathology (Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 96–97). https://doi.org/10.1071/ APP9890096

Anita-Sari, I. & Soesilo, A.W. (2013). Investigation of different characters of stomata on three cocoa clones with resistance level difference to VSD (vascular streak dieback) disease. J Agr Sci Tech.3:703-710.

Baloiloi, D.S. & Akanda, A. (2013). Screening of cocoa seedlings for resistance to vascular streak dieback through leaf disc inoculation. Niugini Agrisaiens. 2013(5): 19-27

Deng, J., Li, W., Peng, X. L., & Hao, X. H. (2013). Study on the potential of antifungal activity of essential oils against fungal pathogens of fruits and vegetables. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 5(12), 443–446.

Dennis, J. J. C., Holderness, M., & Keane, P. J. (1992). Weather patterns associated with sporulation of Oncobasidium theobromae on cocoa. Mycological Research, 96(1), 31–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80993-3

Dhana, N.P., Lubis, L., & Lisnawita (2013). Isolasi cendawan Oncobasidium theobromae (Talbot & Keane) penyebab penyakit vascular streak dieback pada tanaman kakao di Laboratorium. Agroekoteknologi 2(1):288-293.

Dirjenbun. (2017). Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia 2016-2018. In Ministry of Agriculture.

Ditjen PSP. (2016). Pestisida Pertanian dan Kehutanan. Ditjen Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian.

Dubey, S. C., Tripathi, A., Dureja, P., & Grover, A. (2011). Characterization of secondary metabolites and enzymes produced by Trichoderma species and their efficacy against plant pathogenic fungi. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 81(5), 455–461.

El-Zemiti, S.R. & Ahmed, S.M. (2005). Antifungal activity of some essential oils and their major chemical constituents against some phytopathogenic fungi. J. Pest. & Environ. Sci., 13(1), 61–72.

Giyanto, Sastrini, T., Wahyuno, D., & Wartono. (2016). Eksplorasi bekteri endofit pemicu pertumbuhan tanaman kakao pada daerah endemik penyakit VSD (Vascular streak dieback). Prosid Sem. Nas. Perlindungan Tan Perkebunan. Fak. Pertanian, IPB, Bogor 25 Oktober 2016. 201-211

Guest, D., & Keane, P. (2007). Vascular-streak dieback: A new encounter disease of cacao in Papua New Guinea and Southeast Asia caused by the obligate basidiomycete Oncobasidium theobromae. Phytopathology. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-97-12-1654

Guest, D.I. & Keane, P.J. (2018). Cacao diseases: vascular-streak dieback. (Ed) P Umaharan. Achieving sustainable cultivation of cocoa. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing 1-15 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.19103/AS.2017.0021.18

Halimah & Sri-Sukamto. (2006). Sejarah dan perkembangan penyakit vascular streak dieback (VSD) di Indonesia. Warta Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia 22(3):107-119

Harni, R., Amaria, W., Khaerati, K., & Taufiq, E. (2016). Isolasi dan Seleksi Jamur Endofit Asal Tanaman Kakao Sebagai Agens Hayati Phytophthora palmivora Butl. Jurnal Tanaman Industri Dan Penyegar. https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p141-150

Harni, R., Amaria, W., Syafaruddin, & Mahsunah, A.H. (2017). Potensi metabolit sekunder Trichoderma spp. untuk mengendalikan penyakit vascular streak dieback (VSD) pada bibit kakao. J. Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar 4(2), 57-64.

Harni, R., & Baharuddin, B. (2014). Keefektifan Minyak Cengkeh, Serai Wangi, dan Ekstrak Bawang Putih terhadap Penyakit Vascular Streak Dieback (Ceratobasidium theobromae) Pada Kakao. Jurnal Tanaman Industri Dan Penyegar. https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v1n3.2014.p167-174

Harni, R. & Khaerati. (2013). Potensi beberapa fungsisida nabati untuk mengendalikan penyakit vascular streak dieback (VSD) pada bibit kakao. Prosiding Seminar dan Kongres Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia ke XXII. Padang 10 Oktober 2013: 178-186.

Harni, R. (2013). Penyakit vascular streak dieback pada tanaman kakao dan strategi pengendaliannya. Prosiding Seminar dan Kongres Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia ke XXII. Padang 10 Oktober 2013:178-186.

Holderness, M. (1990). Control of vascular‐streak dieback of cocoa with triazole fungicides and the problem of phytotoxicity. Plant Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.1990.tb02505.x

Jayawardena, M. P. G. S., Patmanathan, M., & Ramadasan, K. (1980). Thinning and vascular streak dieback control in high-density cocoa plantings under coconuts. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cocoa and Coconuts, 21-24 June 1978 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Kaiser, C., Vander Merwe, R., Bekker, T.F., & Labuschagne, N. (2010). In-vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of several phytopathogenic fungi, including Phytophthora cinnamomi by solluble silicon. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 28, 2005.

Keane, P. J. (1981). Epidemiology of vascular‐streak dieback of cocoa. Annals of Applied Biology. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1981.tb00756.x

Keane, P. J., Flentje, N. J., & Lamb, K. P. (1972). Investigation of vascular-streak dieback of cocoa in papua new guinea. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1071/BI9720553

Khaerati. (2015). Faktor Ekologi dan Teknik Budidaya yang Berkaitan dengan Epidemi Penyakit Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) pada Tanaman Kakao. Tesis. Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB. 34 hal.

McMahon, P., & Purwantara, A. (2016). Vascular streak dieback (ceratobasidium theobromae): History and biology. In Cacao Diseases: A History of Old Enemies and New Encounters. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24789-2_9

Mejía, L. C., Rojas, E. I., Maynard, Z., Bael, S. Van, Arnold, A. E., Hebbar, P., Samuels, G. J., Robbins, N., & Herre, E. A. (2008). Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biological Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.01.012

Musa, M. J. (1983). Coconut water as culture medium for Oncobasidium theobromae. MARDI-Research-Bulletin. 1983, 11: 1, 107-110; 6 Ref., 3 Fig.

Nakahara, K., Alzoreky, N. S., Yoshihashi, T., Nguyen, H. T. T., & Trakoontivakorn, G. (2003). Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil from Cymbopogon nardus (Citronella Grass). Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.6090/jarq.37.249

Noveriza, R., Trisno, J., Rahma, H., Yuliani, S, Reflin, & Martinius. (2018). IOP Conf. Series: Earth Environmental Science 122(2018) 012028.

Oberwinkler, F., Riess, K., Bauer, R., Kirschner, R., & Garnica, S. (2013). Taxonomic re-evaluation of the Ceratobasidium-Rhizoctonia complex and Rhizoctonia butinii, a new species attacking spruce. Mycological Progress. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-013-09360

Pawirosoemardjo, S., & Purwantara, A. (1992). Occurrence and control of VSD in Java and South East Sulawesi. In Cocoa pest and disease management in Southeast Asia and Australasia. FAO Protection Paper No. 112.

Pawirosoemardjo, S., Purwantara, A., & Keane, P. J. (1990). Vascular-streak dieback of cocoa in Indonesia. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin.

Prior, C. (1977). Growth of Oncobasidium theobromae Talbot & Keane in Dual culture with callus tissue of Theobroma cacao L. Journal of General Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-99-1-219

Prior, C. (1980). Vascular streak dieback. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin.

Pusdatin. (2016). Outlook Kakao. Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian. Sekretaris Jenderal Kementerian Pertanian. 73 hal.

Puslitbangbun. (2010). Budidaya dan Pascapanen kakao. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan. Badan Litbang Pertanian. 94 hal.

Rosmana, A. (2005). Vascular streak dieback: Penyakit baru pada tanaman kakao di Sulawesi. Prosiding Seminar Ilmiah dan Pertemuan Tahunan PEI dan PFI XVI Komda Sul-Sel, 2005:1-7

Rosmana, A., Nasaruddin, N., Hendarto, H., Hakkar, A. A., & Agriansyah, N. (2016). Endophytic association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao suppresses vascular streak dieback incidence and promotes side graft growth. Mycobiology. https://doi.org/ 10.5941/MYCO.2016.44.3.180

Rosmana, A., Samuels, G. J., Ismaiel, A., Ibrahim, E. S., Chaverri, P., Herawati, Y., & Asman, A. (2015). Trichoderma asperellum: A Dominant Endophyte Species in Cacao Grown in Sulawesi with Potential for Controlling Vascular Streak Dieback Disease. Tropical Plant Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40858-015-0004-1

Rubini, M. R., Silva-Ribeiro, R. T., Pomella, A. W. V., Maki, C. S., Araújo, W. L., Dos Santos, D. R., & Azevedo, J. L. (2005). Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches’ Broom Disease. International Journal of Biological Sciences. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.1.24

Samuels, G. J., Ismaiel, A., Rosmana, A., Junaid, M., Guest, D., Mcmahon, P., Keane, P., Purwantara, A., Lambert, S., Rodriguez-Carres, M., & Cubeta, M. A. (2012). Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy. Fungal Biology, 116(1), 11–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2011.07.009

Semangun, H. (2000). Penyakit-penyakit tanaman perkebunan di Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press. 807 hal.

Singh, G. (1989). Evaluation of fungicides against vascular streak dieback, white thread blight and pink disease of cocoa. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics.

Sri-Sukamto, Susilo, A.W., Abdoellah, S., Santoso, T.I. & Yuliasmara, F. (2008). Perkembangan teknik pengendalian penyakit pembuluh kayu (VSD) pada tanaman kakao. Prosiding Simposium Kakao. Denpasar 28-30 Oktober 2008.

Soetanto, L. (2008). Pengantar Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Tanaman. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Syahnen. (2011). Pengendalian penyakit vascular streak dieback (VSD) secara terpadu. http://ditjenbun.deptan.go.id [21 November 2019]

Syarif, M., Anshary, A., & Umrah. (2016). Identifikasi penyakiy vascular streak dieback (VSD) dan tingkat serangan serta pengaruhnya pada pertumbuhan kakao di tiga desa Kecamatan Palolo Kabupaten Sigi. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Tadulako 5(2): 64-76.

Topae, F. N. H., Lakani, I., & Panggeso, J. (2016). Intensitas Serangan Penyakit VSD pada Beberapa Klon Kakao di Desa Sidondo III. Agrotekbis, 4(2), 134–141.

Trisno, J., Reflin, & Martinius. (2016). Vascular streak dieback: Penyakit baru tanaman kakao di Sumatera Barat. J Fitopatol Indones 12(4): 142-147 DOI:10.14692/jfi.12.4.142

Varghese, G., Zainal Abidin, M., & Lam, C.H. (1992). Prospect for chemical control of vascular streak dieback of cocoa. Cocoa Pest and Disease Management in Southeast Asia and Australia. FAO Protection Paper No. 112

Vinale, F., Manganiello, G., Nigro, M., Mazzei, P., Piccolo, A., Pascale, A., Ruocco, M., Marra, R., Lombardi, N., Lanzuise, S., Varlese, R., Cavallo, P., Lorito, M., & Woo, S. L. (2014). A novel fungal metabolite with beneficial properties for agricultural applications. Molecules. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19079760

Wahyu Soesilo, A. & Anita-Sari, I. (2011). Respons ketahanan beberapa hibrida kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap serangan penyakit pembuluh kayu (vascular streak dieback). Pelita Perkebunan 27(2):77-87

Wahyu Soesilo, A., Arisandy, P., Sari, I. A., & Harimurti, R. (2016). Relationship Analysis Between Leaf-Stomata Characteristics with Cocoa Resistance to Vascular-Streak Dieback. Pelita Perkebunan (a Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal). https://doi.org/10.22302/iccri.jur.pelitaperkebunan.v32i1.220

Wessel, M. (2008). Shade and Nutrition. In Cocoa. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470698983.ch7




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v18n2.2019.120-134

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Perspektif

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan
Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu
Bogor 16111

ISSN : 1412-8004

E-ISSN: 2540-8240

Perspektif Review Penelitian Tanaman Industri has been indexed by