PERANAN AGENS HAYATI DALAM MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT JAMUR AKAR PUTIH PADA TANAMAN KARET The Role Of Biocontrol Agents To Control White Root Disease In Rubber

Widi Amaria, Khaerati Khaerati, Rita Harni

Abstract


Penyakit jamur akar putih (JAP) yang disebabkan oleh Rigidoporus microporus merupakan penyakit penting pada tanaman karet (Hevea brasiliensis). Daerah serangan cukup luas dan menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi mencapai 1,8 trilliun rupiah. R. microporus merupakan patogen tular tanah yang menginfeksi mulai pembibitan sampai tanaman dewasa di lapang melalui proses mekanis dan enzimatis. Patogen R. microporus menginfeksi Rhizomorf R. microporus cepat berkembang dan mampu bertahan selama bertahun-tahun di dalam tanah. Pengendalian dengan menggunakan fungisida kimia secara terus menerus dapat mengganggu kestabilan lingkungan. Upaya mengurangi dampak negatif tersebut, dilakukan melalui penerapan teknologi pengendalian hayati dengan pemanfaatan agens hayati. Keunggulan penggunaan agens hayati antagonis adalah mudah berkembang dan beradaptasi dengan lingkungan, mengurangi inokulum patogen, mudah didapatkan dan diperbanyak, serta aman untuk lingkungan. Agens hayati antagonis yang telah digunakan untuk mengendalikan penyakit JAP, antara lain dari kelompok jamur Trichoderma, Hypocrea, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Botryodiplodia, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, dan Eupenicillium, kelompok bakteri adalah Bacillus dan Pseudomonas, serta kelompok aktinobakteri dari marga Streptomyces. Mekanisme agens hayati menekan infeksi R. microporus dengan kompetisi, antibiosis, hiperparasitisme, dan lisis. Keefektifan dan kestabilan agens hayati perlu diformulasi dalam bentuk biofungsida dengan menggunakan bahan pembawa dan tambahan tertentu. Keberhasilan aplikasi biofungisida sangat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan seperti suhu, kelembapan, dan pH. Selain itu, juga didukung oleh komponen budi daya tanaman, seperti penggunaan pupuk organik, dan sanitasi lingkungan dengan pemusnahan sumber inokulum.

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

White root disease (WRD) caused by Rigidoporus microporus is an important disease in rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). The area of attack was quite extensive and caused economic losses up to 1.8 trillion rupiahs. R. microporus is a soil-borne pathogen that infects from seedlings to mature plants in the field through mechanical and enzymatic processes. Rhizomorph able to spreads and survives for years in the soil. Control using chemical fungicides continuously affects the environment stability. The efforts to reduce are conducted through the application of biological control technology with the use of antagonistic biological agents. The benefits of antagonistic biological agents include: easy to develop and adapt to the environment, reducing pathogen inoculum, easily obtained and reproduced, and safe for the environment. The antagonistic biological agents to control WRD include fungus: Trichoderma, Hypocrea, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Botryodiplodia, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Eupenicillium, bacteria: Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and actinobacteria: Streptomyces. The mechanism of biological agents that suppress R. microporus infections with the competition, antibiosis, hyperparasitism, and lysis. The effectiveness and stability of biological agents need to be formulated into biofungicide using carriers and additives. The successful application of biofungicide is strongly influenced by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and pH. It is also supported by the cultivation techniques and environmental sanitation, including inoculum source.

 



Keywords


Hevea brasiliensis, pengendalian hayati, jamur akar putih/Hevea brasiliensis, biological control, white root disease

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amaria, W., Ferry, Y., Samsudin, & Harni, R. (2016) Pengaruh penambahan gliserol pada media perbanyakan terhadap daya simpan biofungisida Trichoderma. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 3 (3), 159–166. Available from: doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n3.2016.p159-166.

Amaria, W., Harni, R. & Samsudin (2015) Evaluasi jamur antagonis dalam menghambat pertumbuhan Rigidoporus microporus penyebab penyakit jamur akar putih pada tanaman karet. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 2 (1), 51-60. Available from: doi:10.21082/jtidp.v2n1.2015.p51-60.

Amaria, W., Harni, R. & Wardiana, E. (2018) Pengaruh dosis dan frekuensi aplikasi biofungisida Trichoderma terhadap infeksi Rigidoporus microporus pada benih karet. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 5 (2), 49–58. Available from: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p49-58.

Amaria, W., Soesanthy, F. & Ferry, Y. (2016) Keefektifan biofungisida Trichoderma sp. dengan tiga jenis bahan pembawa terhadap jamur akar putih Rigidoporus microporus. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 3 (1), 37–44. Available from: doi:10.21082/jtidp.v3n1.2016.p37-44.

Amaria, W., Taufiq, E. & Harni, R. (2013) Seleksi dan identifikasi jamur antagonis sebagai agens hayati jamur akar putih Rigidoporus microporus pada tanaman karet. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 4 (1), 55–64. Available from: doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2013.p55-64.

Amaria, W. & Wardiana, E. (2014) Pengaruh waktu aplikasi dan jenis Trichoderma terhadap penyakit jamur akar putih pada bibit tanaman karet. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 1 (2), 79-86. Available from: doi:10.21082/jtidp.v1n2.2014.p79-86.

Benny, Lubis, L., Oemry, S. & Fairuzah, Z. (2013) Uji dosis dan cara aplikasi biofungisida Bacillus sp. terhadap penyakit jamur akar putiH (Rigidoporus lignosus) pada tanaman karet di pembibitan. Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi. 1 (2), 58–66.

Cavalcante, R.S., Lima, H.L.S., Pinto, G.A.S., Gava, C.A.T. & Rodrigues, S. (2008) Effect of moisture on Trichoderma conidia production on corn and wheat bran by solid state fermentation. Food and Bioprocess Technology. [Online] 1 (1), 100–104. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11947-007-0034-x.

Chamzurni, T., Sriwati, R., Muarif, R., Amin, B. & Ulim, A. (2014) Formulation of Trichoderma virens origin of Aceh cocoa controlling black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. In: Proceedings of Thr 4th Annual International Conference Syah Kuala University (AIC Unsyiah) 2014 In conjuction with 9th Annual International Workshop and Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR). pp.140–145.

Damiri, N., Mulawarman & Efendi, R.S. (2019) Antagonism of Pseudomonas fluorescens from plant roots to Rigidoporus lignosus pathogen of rubber white roots in vitro. Biodiversitas. [Online] 20 (5), 1549–1554. Available from: doi:10.13057/biodiv/d200509.

Faheem, A., Razdan, V.K., Mohiddin, F. A., Bhat, K. A. & Banday, S. (2010) Potential of Trichoderma species as biocontrol agents of soil borne fungal propagules. Journal of Phytology. [Online] 2 (10), 38–41. Available from: 10.5897/AJB2017.15905.

Fairuzah, Z. Dalimunthe, C.I., Karyudi, Suryaman, S. & Widhayati, W.E. (2014) Keefektifan beberapa fungi antagonis (Trichoderma sp.) dalam biofungisida Endohevea terhadap penyakit jamur. Jurnal Penelitian Karet. 32 (2), 122–128.

Fravel, D.R., Connick, W.J.J. & Lewis, J.A. (1998) Formulation of microorganisms to control plant diseases. In: Burges,H.D. (ed.) Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides. Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes, and Seedtreatment. Netherland, Kluwer Academic Publisher, pp.187–202.

Gupta, V.K., SchMoll, M., Herrera-EStrella, A., Upadhyay, R.S., Druzhinina, I. & Tuohy, M.G. (2014) Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma. Amsterdam, Netherlands, Elsevier B.V.

Hardiyanti, S., Soekarno, B.P.W. & Yuliani, T.S. (2017) Kemampuan mikrob endofit dan rizosfer tanaman karet dalam mengendalikan Rigidoporus lignosus. Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia. [Online] 13 (5), 153-160. Available from: doi:10.14692/jfi.13.5.153.

Harman, G.E. (2000) Myths and dogmas of biological control: Changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Disease. (D)-(2000)–(0208)–(01F), 377–393.

Harni, R., Amaria, W., Syafaruddin & Mahsunah, H. (2017) Potensi metabolit sekunder Trichoderma spp . untuk mengendalikan penyakit vascular streak dieback (VSD) pada bibit kakao. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 4 (2), 57–66. Available from: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p57-66.

Herath, H.H.M.A.U., Wijesundera, R.L.C., Chandrasekharan, N. V. & Wijesundera, W.S.S. (2017) Exploration of Sri Lankan soil fungi for biocontrol properties. African Journal of Biotechnology. [Online] 16 (20), 1168–1175. Available from: doi:10.5897/AJB2017.15905.

Jeyarajan, R. & Nakkeeran, S. (2000) Exploitation of microorganisms and viruses as biocontrol agents for crop disease mangement.In: Upadhyay et al. (eds.) Biocontrol Potential and their Exploitation in Sustainable agriculture. USA, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp.95–116.

Kaewchai, S. & Soytong, K. (2010) Application of biofungicides against Rigidoporus microporus causing white root disease of rubber trees. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 6 (2), 349–363.

Khokhar, M.K. & Gupta, R. (2014) Integrated disease management. Popular Kheti. 2 (1), 87–91.

Kusdiana, A.P.J., Munir, M. & Suryaningtyas, H. (2015) Pengujian biofungisida berbasis mikroorganisme antagonis untuk pengendalian penyakit jamur akar putih pada tanaman karet. Jurnal Penelitian Karet. [Online] 33 (2), 143. Available from: doi:10.22302/jpk.v33i2.179.

Maiden, N.A., Noran, A.S., Fauzi, M.A.F.A. & Atan, S. (2017) Screening and characterisation of chitinolytic microorganisms with potential to control white root disease of Hevea brasiliensis. Journal of Rubber Research. [Online] 20 (3), 182–202. Available from: doi:10.1007/BF03449151.

Muharni, M. & Widjajanti, H. (2011) Skrining bakteri kitinolitik antagonis terhadap pertumbuhan jamur akar putih (Rigidoporus lignosus) dari rizosfir tanaman karet. Jurnal Penelitian Sains. 14 (1), 51–56.

Mukesh, S., Kumar, V., Shahid, M., Pandey, S., & Singh, A. (2016) Trichoderma-A potential and effective bio fungicide and alternative source against notable phytopathogens: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research. [Online] 11 (5), 310–316. Available from: doi:10.5897/ajar2015.9568.

Muklasin & Matondang, C.O. (2010) Trend Perkembangan Serangan Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman Karet Di Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Medan.

Nakaew, N., Rangjaroen, C. & Sungthong, R. (2015) Utilization of rhizospheric Streptomyces for biological control of Rigidoporus sp. causing white root disease in rubber tree. European Journal of Plant Pathology. [Online] 142 (1), 93–105. Available from: doi:10.1007/s10658-015-0592-0.

Nakkeeran, S., Karthikeyan, G., Brindhadevi, S. & Vinodkumar, S. (2018) Mass production of fungal and bacterial antagonists. In: Biocontrol of Soil Borne Pathogens and Nematodes. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, pp.96–112.

Nandris, D., Nicole, M. & Geiger, J.P. (1987) Root Rot Diseases. Plant Disease. 71 (4), 298–306.

Nasrun & Nurmansyah (2015) Potensi rizobakteria dan fungisida nabati untuk pengendalian penyakit jamur akar putih tanaman karet. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. [Online] 2 (2), 61–68. Available from: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v2n2.2015.p61-68.

Natawijaya, H. (2007) Government policy on the control of white root disease Rigidoporus lignosus. In: Pawirosoemardjo,S. et al. (eds.) Proceedings International Workshop on White Root Disease of Hevea Rubber. Salatiga, Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, pp.3–13.

Nicole, M.R. & Benhamou, N. (1991) Cytochemical aspects of cellulose breakdown during the infection process of rubber tree roots by Rigidoporus lignosus. Phytopathology. 81, 1412–1420.

Ogbebor, N.O. Adekunle, A.T., Eghafona, O.N. & Ogboghodo, A.I. (2015) Biological control of Rigidoporus lignosus in Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria. Fungal Biology. [Online] 119 (1), Elsevier Ltd, 1–6. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2014.10.002.

Oghenekaro, A.O., Daniel, G. & Asiegbu, F.O. (2015) The saprotrophic wood-degrading abilities of Rigidoporus microporus. Silva Fennica. [Online] 49 (4), 1–10. Available from: doi:10.14214/sf.1320.

Omorusi, V.I. et al. (2014) Control of white root rot disease in rubber plantations in Nigeria. International Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Research. 3 (4), 046–051.

Omorusi, V.I. (2012) Effects of white root rot disease on Hevea brasiliensis (Muell. Arg.) – Challenges and control approach. Plant Science. [Online] 139–152. Available from: doi:10.5772/54024.

Pal, K.K. & Gardener, B.M. (2006) Biological control of plant pathogens. [Online] 1–25. Available from: doi:10.1094/PHI-A-2006-1117-02.Biological.

Patel, R. & Patel, D. (2014) Screening of Trichoderma and antagonistic analysis of a potential strain of Trichoderma for production of a bioformulation. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 4 (10), 1–6.

Rahayu, M.S., Lubis, L. & S., O. (2017) Distribusi peta awal serangan penyakit jamur akar putih (Rigidoporus microporus (Swartz: Fr)) pada beberapa perkebunan karet rakyat di Kabupaten Asahan. Jurnal Agroekoteknologi FP USU. 5 (1), 131–137.

Semangun, H. (2008) Penyakit-Penyakit Tanaman Perkebunan di Indonesia. Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University Press.

Setyawan, B., Pawirosoemardjo, S. & Hadi, H. (2013) Biofungisida Triko combi sebagai salah satu pengendali jamur akar putih pada tanaman karet. Warta Perkaretan. 32 (2), 83–94.

Sinulingga, W. & Eddy (1989) Pengendalian Penyakit Jamur Akar Putih Pada Tanaman Karet. Medan.

Situmorang, A. (2004) Status dan manajemen pengendalian penyakit akar putih di perkebunan karet. In: Situmorang, et al (ed.) Prosiding Pertemuan Teknis. Strategi Pengelolaan Penyakit Tanaman Karet untuk Mempertahankan Potensi Produksi Mendukung Industri Perkaretan Indonesia Tahun 2020. Palembang, Pusat Penelitian Karet, pp.66–68.

Situmorang, A., Suryaningtyas, H. & Pawirosoemardjo, S. (2007) Current status of white root disease (R. microporus) and the disease control management in rubber plantation of Indonesia. In: Pawirosoemardjo, S. et al. (eds.) Proceedings International Workshop on White Root Disease of Hevea Rubber. Salatiga, Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, pp.82–96.

Soesanto, L. (2008) Pengantar Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Tanaman. Depok, Raja Grafindo Persada.

Sriram, S., Roopa, K.P. & Savitha, M.J. (2011) Extended shelf-life of liquid fermentation derived talc formulations of Trichoderma harzianum with the addition of glycerol in the production medium. Crop Protection. [Online] 30 (10), Elsevier Ltd, 1334–1339. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2011.06.003.

Sujatno & Pawirosoemardjo, S. (2001) Pengenalan dan teknik pengendalian penyakit jamur akar putih pada tanaman karet secara terpadu. Warta Puslit Karet. 20 (1)–(3), 64–75.

Suwandi, S. (2008) Evaluasi kombinasi isolat Trichoderma mikoparasit dalam mengendalikan penyakit akar putih pada bibit karet. J.HPT Tropika. 8 (1), 55–62.

Ubogu, M. (2013) Assessment of root zone mycoflora of three Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) clones at Akwete plantations and their in vitro growth inhibition of Rigidoporus lignosus. 3 (2), 618–623.

Wijesinghe, C.J., Wilson Wijeratnam, R.S., Samarasekara, J.K.R.R. & Wijesundera, R. L.C. (2011) Development of a formulation of Trichoderma asperellum to control black rot disease on pineapple caused by (Thielaviopsis paradoxa). Crop Protection. [Online] 30 (3), Elsevier Ltd, 300–306. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2010.11.020.

Yulia, E., Istifadah,N., Widiantini, F., Utami, H.S. (2017) Antagonisme Trichoderma spp. terhadap jamur Rigidoporus lignosus (Klotzsch) dan penekanan penyakit jamur akar putih pada tanaman karet. Jurnal Agrikultura. [Online] 28 (1), 47–55. Available from: http://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/agrikultura/ article/view/13226/6071.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v18n1.2019.52-66

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Perspektif

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan
Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu
Bogor 16111

ISSN : 1412-8004

E-ISSN: 2540-8240

Perspektif Review Penelitian Tanaman Industri has been indexed by