Keragaman Fenotipe dan Genetik Kumbang Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) pada Tanaman Kelapa [The Genetic and Phenotypic Diversities of Brontispa longissima Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Coconut Palms]

Jelfina C. Alouw, Ismail Maskromo, Fadjry Djufry

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Brontispa longissima merupakan salah satu hama utama kelapa yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan daun dan kehilangan hasil kelapa secara ekonomi. Terdapat variasi warna dan pola pewarnaan elytra B. longissima yang tersebar di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis keragaman fenotipe dan genetik hama Brontispa longissima yang berasal dari beberapa daerah dengan menggunakan marka RAPD. Analisis keragaman genetik berdasarkan marka RAPD dilakukan terhadap hama B. longissima yang dikoleksi dari Sulawesi Utara (Sulut), Sulawesi Selatan (Sulsel), Ambon/Seram, dan Papua Barat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Terpadu Hama dan Penyakit Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma (Balit Palma), dan Laboratorium Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian (BB Biogen), dari Bulan Maret sampai dengan November 2016. Berdasarkan analisis RAPD menggunakan 3 primer pada enam sampel B. longissima menunjukkan sampel mengelompok menjadi dua kelompok besar yaitu kelompok I terdiri atas sampel Papua Barat dan Sulsel 2 dan kelompok II  terdiri dari sampel  Ambon/Seram, Sulut 1, Sulut 2 dan Sulsel 1  dengan tingkat kemiripan sekitar 50%. Pada kelompok I, sampel Papua Barat dan Sulsel 2 mempunyai kemiripan sekitar 75%. Kemiripan tertinggi      (> 80 %) tampak antara sampel Sulut 1 dan Sulut 2 yang memiliki warna dan pola warna elytra yang berbeda. Primer OPA 01 dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antar sampel atau keragaman populasi sehingga dapat diaplikasikan sebagai alat deteksi yang cepat dan akurat.   

 

ABSTRACT

Brontispa longissima is one of the main pests of coconut causing leaf damage and yield losses. Variation of color and pattern of the elytra was found among population of B. longissima distributed in Indonesia. The objective of the study was to analyze the phenotypic and genetic diversities of Brontispa longissima pests from several regions using RAPD markers. RAPD marker based diversities analysis was carried out to evaluate genetic and phenotipic relationships among population of B. longissima collected from North Sulawesi (Sulut), South Sulawesi (Sulsel), Ambon/Seram, and West Papua. Laboratory expriments were carried out at the Integrated Pest and Disease Laboratory of The Indonesian Palm Crops Research Institute (IPCRI) and the Laboratory of The Indonesian Center For Agricultural Biotechnology And Genetic Resources Research and Development (ICABOG RAD) from March to November 2016.  Three of the twenty primers selected, have grouped the samples into two distinct clusters.  Cluster analysis indicated 75% similarities between West Papua (P) populations and collections from South Sulawesi 2, and 50% similarities among samples from Ambon/Seram, North Sulawesi 1 and 2, and South Sulawesi 1. The highest similarity of more than 80% was found on two samples from North Sulawesi having different color and pattern of elytra. Primer OPA-01 showed highest polymorphism percentage.

Keywords


Brontispa longissima; keragaman fenotipe dan genetik; marka RAPD

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v18n2.2017.83-90

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