Stabilitas Oksidasi Lipida Terstruktur Berbasis Minyak Kelapa dan Minyak Kelapa Sawit / Oxidative Stability of Structured Lipid Based on Coconut Oil and Palm Oil

Siti Nurhasanah, Nur Wulandari, S. Joni Munarso, Purwiyatno Hariyadi

Abstract


Lipase-catalyzed interesterification is used to synthesize a value added structured lipid (SL) from coconut oil and palm oil. SL is a modified lipid (triacylglycerols; TAG) with replacement and/or arrangement of fatty acid positions to change the fatty acid composition and/or their positional distribution in glycerol backbone. In this research, modification was conducted by enzymatic process, to produced SLs with some beneficial changes in chemical and physical properties.  Sepecifically, objective of this research was to study the oxidative stability of SL obtained from enzymatic interesterification of coconut oil and palm oil. Stability was studied using schaal oven test method and parameters tested were free fatty acid, peroxide value, anisidine value, total oxidation, and thio barbituric acid (TBA) value. Results showed that the type of lipase used and length of interesterification resulted in SL with different oxidative stability. Among SLs evaluated, SL produced with esterification process using lipase of Novozyme 435 for 5 hours has high oxidative stability. At the end of the observation, product that was stored for 4 weeks at 50 oC, contained free fatty acid value of 4.21 %, peroxide value of 2.88 meq O2⁄kg, anisidine value of 5.16, TBA value of 2.01 mg malonaldehyde/kg sample, and total oxidation of 10.92. Those result shows that oxidation stability parameter of structured lipid still meet the standard of palm oil  product and its derivatives

 

Abstrak

Interesterifikasi enzimatik dengan lipase digunakan untuk mensintesis lipida terstruktur (structured lipid/SL) dari bahan baku minyak kelapa dan kelapa sawit. SL adalah lipida (trigliserida) termodifikasi melalui penggantian dan/atau pengaturan posisi asam-asam lemak pada kerangka gliserolnya.  Pada penelitian ini modifikasi secara enzimatik untuk dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk SL dengan sifat kimia dan fisika tertentu yang memiliki nilai tambah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari stabilitas oksidasi produk SL hasil interesterifikasi enzimatik minyak kelapa dan minyak kelapa sawit. Stabilitas oksidasi diukur dengan menggunakan metode uji oven schaal dengan  parameter uji adalah asam lemak bebas, bilangan peroksida, bilangan anisidin, total oksidasi, dan nilai asam tio barbiturat (TBA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis lipase yang digunakan dan lama interesterifikasi menghasilkan SL dengan stabilitas yang berbeda. Diantara produk SL yang dievaluasi, SL yang diperoleh dari proses interesterifikasi menggunakan lipase Novozyme 435 selama 5 jam mempunyai stabilitas oksidasi tinggi.  Pada akhir pengamatan, produk yang disimpan selama 4 minggu pada suhu 50 oC memiliki nilai asam lemak bebas 4,21%, bilangan peroksida 2,88 meq O2/kg, bilangan anisidin 5,16, bilangan TBA 2,01 mg malonaldehid/kg sampel, dan nilai total oksidasi 10,92. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa stabilitas oksidasi lipid terstruktur yang dihasilkan mampu memenuhi standar sebagai produk minyak sawit dan turunannya.

Lipase-catalyzed interesterification is used to synthesize a value added structured lipid (SL) from coconut oil and palm oil. SL is a modified lipid (triacylglycerols; TAG) with replacement and/or arrangement of fatty acid positions to change the fatty acid composition and/or their positional distribution in glycerol backbone. In this research, modification was conducted by enzymatic process, to produced SLs with some beneficial changes in chemical and physical properties.  Sepecifically, objective of this research was to study the oxidative stability of SL obtained from enzymatic interesterification of coconut oil and palm oil. Stability was studied using schaal oven test method and parameters tested were free fatty acid, peroxide value, anisidine value, total oxidation, and thio barbituric acid (TBA) value. Results showed that the type of lipase used and length of interesterification resulted in SL with different oxidative stability. Among SLs evaluated, SL produced with esterification process using lipase of Novozyme 435 for 5 hours has high oxidative stability. At the end of the observation, product that was stored for 4 weeks at 50 oC, contained free fatty acid value of 4.21 %, peroxide value of 2.88 meq O2⁄kg, anisidine value of 5.16, TBA value of 2.01 mg malonaldehyde/kg sample, and total oxidation of 10.92. Those result shows that oxidation stability parameter of structured lipid still meet the standard of palm oil  product and its derivatives


Keywords


interesterifikasi enzimatis; lipida terstruktur; minyak kelapa; minyak kelapa sawit; stabilitas oksidasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bp.v18n2.2017.53-62

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